The World Top 10 Oil Producers

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Offshore oil and gas production and processing platforms and facility.

 

In 2018, daily world oil production amounts to around 92 million barrels per day, increasing slightly 0.7% from previous year.

Here are the world top ten oil producers according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA):

  1. USA – 15.6 Million barrels of oil per day
  2. Saudi Arabia – 12.1 Million BOPD
  3. Russia – 11.2 Million BOPD
  4. Canada – 5.0 Million BOPD
  5. China – 4.8 Million BOPD
  6. Iran – 4.7 Million BOPD
  7. Iraq – 4.5 Million BOPD
  8. UAE – 3.7 Million BOPD
  9. Brazil – 3.4 Million BOPD
  10. Kuwait – 2.9 Million BOPD

The USA is the largest oil producer in the world in 2017. The production of crude oil in the USA is expected to increase into 2019. The USA is also the world’s largest consumer of oil. Its daily oil consumption in 2019 is projected to increase by 340,000 barrels to 20.65 million barrels, according to EIA.

Saudi Arabia, on the other hand, is the largest oil exporting country. As the most well-known and influential oil producer, it has 260 billion barrels of oil reserves, which is about 22% of the world’s oil reserves.

The Top Three Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

Unconventional oil and gas resources are resources where the oil and gas are difficult to recover or produce due to either the very low permeability of the formation or the very low mobility of the hydrocarbons. Special techniques and processes are required to recover these types of resources.

The three common types of unconventional hydrocarbon resources are:

  1. Oil sands.
  2. Shale oil and shale gas.
  3. Coal-bed Methane.

Oil Sands

The world’s largest oil sand deposit is the Athabasca oil sands located in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands are a mixture of semi-solid bitumen or asphalt and sand, and they are buried not far from the earth surface. Commercial production of the Athabasca oil sands began in 1967 and the current production is at around two million BOPD. Many major oil companies are involved in the production of these oil sands.

Two methods are used to recover the oil from the oil sands. They are open-pit mining and the SAGD method.

Open-pit mining method is commonly used to extract the oil from oil sands located near the earth surface. After the tar sand is mined, it is mixed with hot water and agitated to form a slurry. The released bitumen droplets will float to the surface with the help of the tiny air bubbles which attach to the bitumen droplets. The bitumen will then be skimmed off and further processed to remove the remaining water and solids. Lastly, the bitumen will be upgraded to synthetic crude oil. About 75% of the bitumen can be extracted from the tar sands.

For tar sands located at a deeper depth, in-situ production methods are used, such as steam injection, fire flooding, and chemical injection. A popular steam injection method is the SAGD method. In SAGD, steam-assisted gravity drainage, a pair of horizontal wells are drilled into the oil sand, one at the bottom of the formation and another about 5 meters above it. High-pressure steam is injected into the sand from the upper well to heat the heavy oil and thus reduce its viscosity. With the increase in mobility, the oil drains into the lower well where it is pumped to the surface. SAGD is the preferred method for extracting the oil sands due to environmental concerns.

Shale Oil and Shale Gas

Another currently popular unconventional hydrocarbon resource is shale oil and shale gas. Shale oil is oil that is trapped inside the tight shale. Shale is a hard sedimentary rock

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An oil field and sucker Rod pumps

composed of clay that is rich in organic materials. Since tight shale has very low permeability, hydraulic fracturing method is used to extract the oil. In hydraulic fracturing, a large quantity of viscous fluid carrying sand is pumped into the well under high pressure to fracture the shale, creating pathways and highways for the oil to flow out of the shale and into the wellbore.

Most shale oil production takes place in the US and the daily production of shale oil reaches six million BOPD in 2017. A large quantity of gas is also produced from shale. According to the US Energy Information Agency (EIA), gas production from shale in the US in 2016 was 15.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF).

The most well-known and top shale oil plays in the US are The Permian Basin and Eagle Ford Shale in Texas, and Bakken Shale in North Dakota.

Coal Bed Methane

Coalbed methane (CBM) is an unconventional resource of methane gas. It is being produced successfully in some parts of the world, notably in Australia and Canada. Since coal is formed from organic materials, methane gas (CH4) is generated during the formation of coal. The generated methane is adsorbed in the coal matrix, fractures and coal seams called cleats. Cleats are horizontal and vertical fractures formed naturally in coal.  

Wells are needed to produce the methane gas. Since underground coal is usually saturated with water, methane is extracted by first removing the water from the coal by pumping out the water. As the water is pumped out from the well, the coal pore pressure will decrease causing the adsorbed gas to be liberated from the coal and then flow to the wellbore. Due to the low permeability of the coal matrix, the coal must have a sufficient network of fractures and cleats to produce the methane gas at economic production rates.

Jamin Djuang

The largest tidal power plant in the world

Indonesia will build the largest tidal power plant in the world in the straits of Larantuka at the Island of Flores. The power plant is designed to provide electricity to more than 100,000 residents in that area.

This Larantuka power plant project aligns with Indonesia’s commitment to increase the share of renewable energy in the total energy supply to 25% by 2025. It also commits to reduce the emission of CO2 by 300 million tonnes by 2030.

The tapping of ocean energy, consisting of wave and tidal energy to produce clean and cheaper power will grow significantly.  According to Market Research Future, the annual growth rate of the global wave and tidal market is expected to be more than 17% till 2023.

Please read this great article on “Larantuka Straits, Indonesia will be home to the largest tidal power plant in the world” written by Novrida Masli.

You can learn how to tap the energy from the ocean in this video.

Lava Laze of Kilauea

 

Watch this spectacular USGS video showing lava laze formed by the lava of Kilauea volcano flowing into ocean at Kapoho bay on June 4, 2018.

The lava is from Kilauea Volcano’s lower east Rift Zone entering the ocean. The ocean entry is about a half-mile wide. The flow sends a large laze plume into the air along the coast.

 

What is lava laze?

When the lava flow goes into the ocean water, it boils the water and creates a white acidic plume. That’s laze.

“It’s a complex chemical reaction that occurs between the lava flow and seawater,” said Wendy Stovall, a volcanologist with the U.S. Geological Survey. “It creates a mixture of condensed acidic steam, hydrochloric acid gas and tiny shards of volcanic glass.”

From the air, the plume looks like exhaust from a factory or the white smoke released during a forest fire.

If you’re underneath the plume, a light sprinkle of rain as corrosive as battery acid can fall on you. The acid can burn your skin, irritate your eyes and make it difficult to breathe. In rare cases, the damage can be permanent.

Source: LA Times article by Heidi Chang

Geothermal Plants near a Volcano

Geothermal plants can be safely situated near a volcano, says Dr. Roland Horne, Thomas Davies Barrow Professor in the School of Earth Sciences and Senior Fellow at the Precourt Institute for Energy at Standord University.

You can read the outstanding article from Stanford University titled Geothermal at the foot of Kilauea on this and on the recent volcano eruption of Mt. Kilauea in Hawaii at https://earth.stanford.edu/news/geothermal-foot-kilauea?linkId=52195066.

In this article, Dr. Roland Horne discusses geothermal energy in the face of natural hazards and a way to tap the earth’s heat far from volcanoes in the future.

I highly recommend you read the article that I mention above. In this article you can also watch the awesome lava flow from a fissure of Mt. Kilauea on May 19, 2018 and learn about Stanford University’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences.

Digital Rock Physics – Core Analysis Using Digital Technology

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Offshore oil and gas processing platform,

In the last decade, there has been an important breakthrough in how petroleum engineers and geoscientists obtained oil and gas reservoir rock properties.

Traditionally, reservoir rock properties or petrophysical properties such as porosity, pore size distribution, effective and relative permeability, capillary pressure, water saturation and other reservoir parameters are determined from Special Core Analysis (SCAL), electric logs and well pressure transient tests. In recent years, a new method in determining rock properties using Digital Rock Physics (DRP) has gained serious attention from petroleum engineers, petro-physicists and geoscientists.

What is digital rock physics? Digital rock physics is also referred to as digital core analysis. In this measurement method, high-resolution digital images of the rock pores and mineral grains of selected reservoir core samples are made and analyzed. These images are usually 3D digital X-ray micro-tomographic images. The rock properties are then determined using numerical simulation at the pore scale.

The significant benefit of this new DRP technology is now a large number of complex reservoir parameters can be determined faster and more accurately than the traditional laboratory measurements or well testing methods.

Using the DRP technology to determine the rock properties, oil and gas companies can now analyze their reservoir capacity and performance more accurately and sooner during the field evaluation and development phase. This, in turn, allows them to develop and manage their reservoirs more efficiently and economically.

Source – Digital Rock Physics for Fast and Accurate Special Core Analysis in Carbonates – A Chapter in New Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry – By  Mohammed Zubair Kalam

Note: If you like to read the complete write-up of this source article, please visit http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/40517/InTech-Digital_rock_physics_for_fast_and_accurate_special_core_analysis_in_carbonates.pdf

 

Gas Handling, Conditioning and Processing

This gas handling, conditioning and processing course is designed and presented by Dr Maurice Stewart to teach you how to design, select, specify, install, test and trouble-shoot your gas processing facilities.

This gas handling, conditioning and processing course has been attended by thousands of oil and gas professionals since Dr Maurice Stewart began teaching it more than 20 years ago. Dr Stewart is a co-author of a widely acclaimed “Surface Production Operations: Design of Gas Handling Facilities” along with Ken Arnold.

By attending this course, participants will:

1. Know the important parameters in designing, selecting, installing, operating and trouble-shooting gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities.
2. Understand the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in designing and operating the equipment in these systems and the limitations, advantages and disadvantages associated with their use.
3. Learn how to size, select, specify, operate, maintain, test and trouble-shoot surface equipment used with the handling, conditioning and processing of natural gas and associated liquids such as separators, heat exchangers, absorption and fractionation systems, dehydration systems, refrigeration, low temperature separation units, JT plants and compression systems.
4. Know how to evaluate and choose the correct process for a given situation.

Course Content

In this 5-day course, Dr Maurice Stewart will cover the following topics:
• Fluid properties, basic gas laws and phase behaviour
• Well Configurations, surface safety systems (SSS) and emergency support systems (ESS)
• Gas Processing systems, selection and planning
• Water-hydrocarbon phase behaviour, hydrate formation prevention and inhibition
• Heat transfer theory and process heat duty
• Heat exchangers: configurations, selection and sizing
• Gas-liquid separation and factors affecting separation
• Types of separators and scrubbers, and their construction
• Gas-liquid separators and sizing
• Liquid-liquid separators and sizing
• Three phase separator sizing
• Pressure vessels: the internals, mechanical design and safety factors
• Separator operating problems and practical solutions
• Gas compression theory, compression ratio and number of stages
• Compressor selection: centrifugal compressors vs. reciprocating compressors
• Vapor recovery units, screw compressors and vane compressors
• Compression station design and safety systems
• Performance curves for reciprocating compressors
• Absorption process and absorbers
• Adsorption process and adsorbers
• Glycol gas dehydration unit design and operation
• Glycol unit operating variables and trouble shooting
• Glycol selection and glycol regeneration
• Acid gas sweetening processes and selection
• Fractionation, refrigeration plants, expander plants and J-T plants
• Process control and safety systems

Course Materials

Participants will receive the following course materials:
1. The 3rd Edition of Volume 2 of the widely acclaimed “Surface Production Operations: Design of Gas Handling Facilities” written by Ken Arnold and Dr Maurice Stewart. This textbook continues to be the standard for industry and has been used by thousands since its first printing over fifteen years ago.
2. A comprehensive set of lecture notes for after course reading and reference
3. An extensive set of practical in-class “case study” exercises developed by Dr Stewart that will be used to emphasize the design and “trouble-shooting” pitfalls often encountered in the industry.

Who Should Attend

• Facility engineers, production engineers, design and construction engineers, team leaders, operations engineers, maintenance team leaders/engineers and other personnel who are or will be responsible for the designing, selecting, sizing, specifying, installing, testing, operating and maintaining gas handling facilities, gas plant facilities and gas pipelines.
• Experienced professionals who want to review or broaden their understanding of gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities and gas pipeline operation and maintenance.
• Professionals with little to moderate experience with the handling or processing of natural gas and associated liquids.

If you like to receive a pdf file of this course outline, please contact us.

Registration Information

Course date: November 19-23, 2018
Location: Singapore
Tuition: US$4500

Registration Form

If you or your people want to attend this course, please register HERE.

Contact information
LDI Training Pte Ltd
369 Holland Road #02-04
Singapore 278640

Email: lditrain@singnet.com.sg
Website: https://oilandgascourses.org

About Dr. Maurice Stewart

Dr Maurice Stewart, PE, CSP, is a Registered Professional Engineer and Certified Safety Professional with over 40 years of experience in international consulting, trouble-shooting oil, water and gas processing facilities; and leading safety audits, hazards reviews and risk assessments.

He is internationally respected for his teaching excellence and series of widely acclaimed textbooks in the areas of designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating and trouble-shooting:

  • Oil and water handling facilities
  • Gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities
  • Facility piping and pipeline systems
  • Gas dehydration and sweetening facilities
  • Pumps, compressors and drivers
  • Instrumentation, process control and safety systems
  • Oil and gas measuring and metering systems

Dr Stewart is the author of several new textbooks related to oil and gas processing facilities; and he is one of the co-authors of the SPE Petroleum Engineering Handbook.  He has authored and co-authored over 90 technical papers and contributed to numerous conferences as a keynote speaker. Dr Stewart has taught over 60,000 professionals from more than 100 oil and gas related companies in 90 countries.

Dr Stewart serves on numerous international committees responsible for developing or revising industry Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices for such organizations as ANSI, API, ASME, ISA, NACE and SPE. He is currently serving on the following American Petroleum Institute (API) committees: API RP 14C, RP 14E, RP 14F, RP 14G, RP 14J, RP 500 and RP 75. He has developed and taught worldwide short courses for API related to Surface Production Operations. In 1985, Dr Stewart received the National Society of Professional Engineers “Engineer-of-the-year” award.

Dr Stewart holds a BS in Mechanical Engineering from Louisiana State University and MS degrees in Mechanical, Civil (Structural Option) and Petroleum Engineering from Tulane University and a PhD in Petroleum Engineering from Tulane University.  Dr. Stewart served as a Professor of Petroleum Engineering at Tulane University and Louisiana State University.

Here are the most frequently requested Dr Maurice Stewart courses:

  • Oil and water handling facilities
  • Gas handling, conditioning and processing
  • Production safety systems
  • The new API RP 14C and API RP 17V
  • Plant piping and pipeline systems
  • Oil and gas project management
  • Pumps, compressors and drivers

If you are interested in having an inhouse course with Dr Maurice Stewart, please contact LDI Training at LDITrain@singnet.com.sg.

 

 

 

Production Safety Systems

A 5-day course by Dr. Maurice Stewart incorporating the new 2017 8th Edition of API RP 14C, the new API RP 17V 1st Edition, API RP 14J, API RP 500/505, API RP 520/521/2000, IEC 61508-2 and IEC 61508-3.

This intense Production Safety Systems course presents a systematization of proven practices for providing a safety system for onshore and offshore production facilities. Thousands of oil and gas professionals have attended this course since it was offered by Dr. Maurice Stewart more than 20 years ago.

This production safety systems course has been updated to reflect the changes provided in the new API RP 14C and the API RP 17V. In this course, you will learn the latest concepts, methods and practices that will make your facility operationally safe.

What You’ll Learn

• Provisions for designing, installing and testing both safety and non-marine emergency support systems (ESSs) on both onshore and offshore production facilities.
• Concepts of a facility safety system and outline production methods and requirements of the system.
• Guidance on how safety analysis methods can be used to determine safety requirements to protect common process components from the surface wellhead and/or topside boarding valve and for subsea systems including all process components from the wellhead and surface controlled subsurface safety valve (SCSSV) to upstream of the boarding shutdown valve. (Note: The shutdown valve is within the scope of API RP 17V for gas injection, water injection, gas lift systems and chemical injections.)
• The importance of “Safety Concept,” “Safety Reviews,” and “EB-HAZOPs.”
• A method to document and verify process safety system functions, i.e., safety analysis function evaluation (SAFE chart).
• Design guidance for ancillary systems such as pneumatic supply systems and liquid containment systems.
• A uniform method of identifying and symbolizing safety devices.
• Procedures for testing common safety devices with recommendations for test data and acceptable test tolerances.
• The Principles of Safe Facility Design and Operation, specifically, how to Contain Hydrocarbons, Prevent Ignition, Prevent Fire Escalation and Provide Personnel Protection and Escape.
• The Principles of Plant Layout Partitioning and how to partition a plant into Fire Zones, Restricted Areas and Impacted Areas thereby minimizing the Risk to Radiation, Explosion, Noise and Toxicity.
• How to determine Electrical Hazardous (Classified) Locations and determine what Electrical Equipment should be installed in these locations,
• The purpose of Surface Safety Systems, specifically, the Emergency Shut-down System, Emergency Depressurization System, Fire and Gas Detection Systems and High Integrity Protection Systems,
• The Objectives, Types, Location and Placement of Fire and Gas Detection Systems.
• The Objectives, Types and Performance of Active and Passive Fire Protection Systems.
• The Function, Types, Selection and layout of Vent, Flare and Relief Systems to minimize the effects of Radiation, Flammable Gas Dispersion and Toxic Gas Dispersion.
• The function and design considerations of Liquid Drainage Systems
• How to determine piping “spec breaks”.
• How to evaluate workplace and operating/maintenance procedures for “hidden” hazards.
• How to effectively design facilities and work areas to reduce human errors and improve performance.

Course Content

• Principles of safe facility design
• Ignition prevention
• Fire escalation prevention
• Personnel protection and escape
• Installation layout
• Electrical installations in hazardous (classified) areas
• Safety systems
• Pressure ratings and Specification breaks
• High Integrity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS)
• Safety system and ESS bypassing
• Onshore gathering station safety systems
• Fire and gas detection systems
• Active and passive fire protection
• Relief, vent and flare systems
• Liquid drainage systems
• Electrical Area Classification

Who Should Attend

This workshop is specifically targeted for professionals and engineers who are involved in safety or production operations and who want to:

1. Develop a better understanding of the effectiveness of existing Production Safety System initiatives at existing oil and gas facilities.
2. Appreciate the main steps contemplated in the Safe Design of a plant or facility,
3. Better understand the scope and functioning of the various safety related equipment installed onshore, offshore and subsea.
4. Review or broaden their understanding of how to conduct a safety analysis, Experience-Based HAZOP and how to install electrical equipment in hazardous (Classified) locations.
5. Other professionals who want to develop a better understanding of how to conduct a Safety Analysis, EB-HAZOPs and install electrical equipment in hazardous (Classified) locations.

Course Materials

• Each participant will receive a comprehensive set of worksheets and checklists to aid them in conducting a safety analysis
• Each participant will receive a comprehensive set of lecture notes for after course reading and reference
• An extensive set of practical in-class “case study” exercises specially designed by Dr. Maurice Stewart that emphasizes the design and “trouble-shooting” pitfalls often encountered in the industry.

If you like to receive a pdf file of this course outline, please contact us.

Registration Information

Course date : December 10-14, 2018
Location : Singapore
Tuition : US$4500

Registration Form

If you or your people want to attend this course, please register HERE.

Contact information

LDI Training Pte Ltd
369 Holland Road #02-04
Singapore 278640

Email : lditrain@singnet.com.sg
Website : https://oilandgascourses.org

The New API 2017 RP 14C and API RP 17V

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In 2017, API published the new 8th Edition of API RP 14C and created the new 1st Edition of API 17V for subsea applications.

Here are the major modifications of API RP 14C and the new guidelines provided in API RP 17V:

1. The API RP 14C, new 8th Edition “Analysis, Design, Installation and Testing of Safety Systems for Offshore Production Facilities” was developed in coordination with the new First Edition of API RP 17V “Recommended Practice for Analysis, Design, Installation and Testing of Safety Systems for Subsea Applications”.

2. Changes in safety system technology.

3. Additional guidance for facility safety systems as they have become larger, more complex and moved into deeper water.

4. Added requirements which include extensive emphasis on the performing of hazards analysis due to increased flow rates, pressures, temperatures and water depth.

5. Better alignment with API Standard 521, “Pressure-relieving and Depressuring Systems”.

6. Additional requirements for pumps and compressors greater than 1000 HP and reference to API 670.

7. Additional requirements to protect against backflow and settle-out pressures.

8. New address on low-temperature hazards.

9. Enhancements on open deck Fire and Gas detection placement and sensor type.

10. Extensive emphasis on performing hazards analysis to include introduction of the Prevention vs. Mitigation concepts.

11. Additional annex to cover topside High Intensity Pressure Protection Systems (HIPPS).

12. Additional annex to cover Safety System By-passing.

13. Additional annex to cover Logic Solvers.

14. Additional annex to cover Remote Operation.

If you have a need to understand these new modifications in API RP 14C and the new guidelines provided in the brand new API RP 17V for subsea applications, here is a 5-day course which you and/or your colleagues may want to attend:

Course Title: Production Safety Systems – Incorporating the New 2017 API RP 14C and API RP 17V
The Instructor: Dr. Maurice Stewart, PE, CSP
Course Date and Location: December 10-14, 2018 in Singapore

Since the API RP 14C and API RP 17V are critically important for the safety of your offshore and subsea facilities, please share this information with your company’s managers, supervisors, engineers and safety personnel who need to:

1. Develop a better understanding of the modifications of the 2017 edition of API RP 14C and the newly created API RP 17V

2. Appreciate the main steps contemplated in the Safe Design of onshore, offshore and subsea applications

3. Better understand the scope and functioning of the various safety related equipment installed onshore, offshore and subsea.

For more information about the course, please contact LDITrain@singnet.com.sg