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The World Top 10 Oil Producers

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Offshore oil and gas production and processing platforms and facility.

 

In 2018, daily world oil production amounts to around 92 million barrels per day, increasing slightly 0.7% from previous year.

Here are the world top ten oil producers according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA):

  1. USA – 15.6 Million barrels of oil per day
  2. Saudi Arabia – 12.1 Million BOPD
  3. Russia – 11.2 Million BOPD
  4. Canada – 5.0 Million BOPD
  5. China – 4.8 Million BOPD
  6. Iran – 4.7 Million BOPD
  7. Iraq – 4.5 Million BOPD
  8. UAE – 3.7 Million BOPD
  9. Brazil – 3.4 Million BOPD
  10. Kuwait – 2.9 Million BOPD

The USA is the largest oil producer in the world in 2017. The production of crude oil in the USA is expected to increase into 2019. The USA is also the world’s largest consumer of oil. Its daily oil consumption in 2019 is projected to increase by 340,000 barrels to 20.65 million barrels, according to EIA.

Saudi Arabia, on the other hand, is the largest oil exporting country. As the most well-known and influential oil producer, it has 260 billion barrels of oil reserves, which is about 22% of the world’s oil reserves.

The Top Three Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

Unconventional oil and gas resources are resources where the oil and gas are difficult to recover or produce due to either the very low permeability of the formation or the very low mobility of the hydrocarbons. Special techniques and processes are required to recover these types of resources.

The three common types of unconventional hydrocarbon resources are:

  1. Oil sands.
  2. Shale oil and shale gas.
  3. Coal-bed Methane.

Oil Sands

The world’s largest oil sand deposit is the Athabasca oil sands located in Alberta, Canada. Oil sands are a mixture of semi-solid bitumen or asphalt and sand, and they are buried not far from the earth surface. Commercial production of the Athabasca oil sands began in 1967 and the current production is at around two million BOPD. Many major oil companies are involved in the production of these oil sands.

Two methods are used to recover the oil from the oil sands. They are open-pit mining and the SAGD method.

Open-pit mining method is commonly used to extract the oil from oil sands located near the earth surface. After the tar sand is mined, it is mixed with hot water and agitated to form a slurry. The released bitumen droplets will float to the surface with the help of the tiny air bubbles which attach to the bitumen droplets. The bitumen will then be skimmed off and further processed to remove the remaining water and solids. Lastly, the bitumen will be upgraded to synthetic crude oil. About 75% of the bitumen can be extracted from the tar sands.

For tar sands located at a deeper depth, in-situ production methods are used, such as steam injection, fire flooding, and chemical injection. A popular steam injection method is the SAGD method. In SAGD, steam-assisted gravity drainage, a pair of horizontal wells are drilled into the oil sand, one at the bottom of the formation and another about 5 meters above it. High-pressure steam is injected into the sand from the upper well to heat the heavy oil and thus reduce its viscosity. With the increase in mobility, the oil drains into the lower well where it is pumped to the surface. SAGD is the preferred method for extracting the oil sands due to environmental concerns.

Shale Oil and Shale Gas

Another currently popular unconventional hydrocarbon resource is shale oil and shale gas. Shale oil is oil that is trapped inside the tight shale. Shale is a hard sedimentary rock

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An oil field and sucker Rod pumps

composed of clay that is rich in organic materials. Since tight shale has very low permeability, hydraulic fracturing method is used to extract the oil. In hydraulic fracturing, a large quantity of viscous fluid carrying sand is pumped into the well under high pressure to fracture the shale, creating pathways and highways for the oil to flow out of the shale and into the wellbore.

Most shale oil production takes place in the US and the daily production of shale oil reaches six million BOPD in 2017. A large quantity of gas is also produced from shale. According to the US Energy Information Agency (EIA), gas production from shale in the US in 2016 was 15.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF).

The most well-known and top shale oil plays in the US are The Permian Basin and Eagle Ford Shale in Texas, and Bakken Shale in North Dakota.

Coal Bed Methane

Coalbed methane (CBM) is an unconventional resource of methane gas. It is being produced successfully in some parts of the world, notably in Australia and Canada. Since coal is formed from organic materials, methane gas (CH4) is generated during the formation of coal. The generated methane is adsorbed in the coal matrix, fractures and coal seams called cleats. Cleats are horizontal and vertical fractures formed naturally in coal.  

Wells are needed to produce the methane gas. Since underground coal is usually saturated with water, methane is extracted by first removing the water from the coal by pumping out the water. As the water is pumped out from the well, the coal pore pressure will decrease causing the adsorbed gas to be liberated from the coal and then flow to the wellbore. Due to the low permeability of the coal matrix, the coal must have a sufficient network of fractures and cleats to produce the methane gas at economic production rates.

Jamin Djuang

The 10 Giant Offshore Oil and Gas Fields in Indonesia

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A drilling rig on top of a fixed offshore production platform. The drilling operation was supported by a floating platform.

 

Since 1966 when Indonesia began offering production sharing contracts (PSC) for international companies to explore and produce oil and gas in Indonesia, many giant and super-giant oil and gas fields were discovered.

Giant fields are those with estimated ultimate recoverable reserves (EUR) of 500 million barrels of oil or gas equivalent (MMBOE) and super giant oil fields are those holding an equivalent of 5.5 billion barrels of oil reserves.

Here are the ten giant offshore oil and gas fields in Indonesia discovered between 1966 and 2000.

1. Abadi Field

Abadi is a giant gas field discovered by Inpex in 2000 in the Masela contract area in the Arafura Sea. The Abadi field has an estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of 768 MMBOE and it is located 93 miles offshore from the province of Maluku in the eastern part of Indonesia.

Originally the field would be developed using subsea production system and a floating LNG (FLNG) facility. The plan now is to develop the field based on an onshore LNG development concept.

Inpex in partnership with Royal Dutch Shell is currently conducting preliminary front-end engineering design (Pre-FEED) studies for the Abadi field development based on an onshore concept. The LNG project will produce 9.5 MM tons of LNG annually.

When developed, the Abadi field may become the biggest deepwater gas project in Indonesia. It is expected to produce more than 1 billion SCF of gas per day and 20,000 barrels of condensate per day for 24 years.

2. Gula Field

The Gula field is an offshore gas field discovered by Unocal in its Ganal production sharing contract area located in the Kalimantan strait in 2000. With an EUR of 545 MMBOE, it is a giant gas field.

The Gula field, along with the Gendalo discovery and the Gada discovery, is one of the many discoveries made by Unocal in the deep-water area between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. These discoveries confirm that the Central Delta play contains world-class gas resources.

The Gula field is currently an undeveloped discovered resource.

3. Ubadari Field

Ubadari is a giant offshore gas field discovered in 1997. The Ubadari field has an EUR of 500 MMBOE and it is located at Bintuni Bay in West Irian province.

The Ubadari field will supply its gas to Tangguh LNG plant when the Tangguh LNG Train-3 project is completed in 2020. The Tangguh expansion aims at meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy in Indonesia and accelerating the development of West Irian.

PLN, Indonesia’s electricity company, has signed a sales and purchase agreement to buy up to 1.5 million tons of LNG produced by Tangguh LNG plant annually.

Tangguh LNG plant is scheduled to process the gas produced from the six gas fields located at Bintuni Bay: Vorwata, Wiriagar Deep, Ofaweri, Roabiba, Ubadari, and Wos.

4. Vorwata Field

Vorwata is an offshore giant gas field located in Bintuni Bay in West Irian Province. The Vorwata field, with EUR of 1833 MMBOE, was discovered by ARCO in the Berau block in 1997. BP became the operator of Vorwata field after it acquired ARCO.

Gas production from Vorwata field started in 2009. The field is capable of producing more than 1 BCF of gas per day and the gas is processed into LNG by the Tangguh LNG plant.

5. West Seno Field

The West Seno field is a deepwater oil field discovered by Unocal in 1996. Having an EUR of 553 MMBOE, it is a giant oil field and is currently operated by Chevron.

Lying in water depths of 2,400 to 3,400 feet, the West Seno field is Indonesia’s first deepwater development. It lies in the Makassar Strait PSC off Kalimantan on the continental slope of the northern Mahakam Delta.

The oil is produced using two tension leg platforms and a floating production unit, tied back by two export pipelines to onshore infrastructure.

6. Peciko Field

Peciko is a gas field located offshore in the Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan. The field was discovered by Total with INPEX as its partner in 1991. The Peciko is a giant gas field having EUR of 1180 MMBOE.

Of all the producing fields in the Mahakam River delta, the Peciko field is unique in that its reservoir trap is both structural and stratigraphic.

The Peciko wells are highly productive having an average well productivity of 80 MMSCF of gas per day. Total daily gas production exceeded 1 BSCF during its peak. A substantial quantity of condensate is being produced along with the gas.

7. Tunu Field

The Tunu field is a supergiant gas field discovered by Total along with Inpex as its partner in 1977. It is located at the shallow waters along the outer limits of the delta offshore Mahakam Block in East Kalimantan. It has an EUR of 4378 MMBOE.

Started in 1978, the Tunu field produces gas and condensate having negligible CO2 or H2S, with the main productive reservoirs lying at depths from 2,200 to 4,900 meters.

Developing the large Tunu field is challenging and producing the gas requires drilling a large number of wells. The field has a large surface area of 20 Km wide and 75 Km long and it is located at the wetland of Mahakam swamp.

8. East Natuna Field

The offshore East Natuna gas field was discovered by AGIP in 1970. It is located 140 miles northeast of the Natuna Islands, Indonesia’s northernmost territory. It is a super-giant gas field with estimated recoverable reserves of 46 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas.

There were serious studies done and attempts made by Exxon-Mobil and Pertamina to develop this field.

The field is currently undeveloped due to its very high CO2 content of 71%. To produce the gas will require removing the CO2 from the gas and injecting it back into the reservoir. Production can be commercially viable when the price of oil is above $100 per barrel.

9. Attaka Field

The Attaka field is a giant oil and gas field discovered by Unocal in partnership with Inpex in 1970.   Chevron became the field operator after it acquired Unocal in 2005. Having an EUR of 1000 MMBOE, the Attaka field is located 12 miles from the shore of East Kalimantan.

The huge Attaka reservoir, formed in the very prolific Kutei basin, has an areal closure of 8000 acres. Due to its large areal extent, originally the oil and gas were produced from more than 100 wells located in 6 remote wellhead platforms.

Ten years later, five subsea wells were completed in 1981-1984 to produce the untapped oil accumulation in areas out of reach of the existing remote platforms. These are the first subsea completions in Indonesia.

Attaka field daily oil production was 110,000 BOPD at its peak and gas production was 150 MMSCFPD. Now the Attaka field is quite depleted.

10. Ardjuna Field

The Ardjuna Field is a giant oil field having an EUR of 698 MMBOE. This is the first offshore giant field discovered since the birth of the Indonesian PSC system in 1966.

The Ardjuna field was discovered by ARCO in the Offshore North West Java (ONWJ) production sharing contract area in 1969. Subsequently, it was operated by BP when it acquired ARCO in 2000. Now the field is operated by Pertamina Hulu Energy ONWJ Ltd.

Interesting facts about the Ardjuna field include the drilling of the first horizontal well in Indonesia in 1985 and supplying gas to PLN’s power plant in Muara Karang in Jakarta in 1993.

Pertamina’s refinery in Cilacap began using crude oil from Ardjuna field in 1986.

Jamin Djuang

1 September 2018

Why synthetic lubricating oil lasts longer than mineral oil?

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The traditional oil we use to lubricate our car engine is called mineral oil because it is derived from crude oil. Mineral oil consists of hydrocarbon molecules extracted from the distillation of crude oil. They are mainly alkanes in the range of C-15 to C- 40.

An alkane is a saturated hydrocarbon consisting of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Also called paraffin, it has the general formula of CnH2n+2. The simplest alkane is methane, CH4, where the n=1.

Due to the chemical and physical properties of the hydrocarbon alkanes, they have limited resistance to oxidation and thermal breakdown at very high temperature.

Synthetic oil, on the other hand, consists of synthetic molecules. They are artificially made and specially designed to provide excellent lubrication and stability at very high and also at low temperature. Since these synthetic molecules do not deteriorate easily, they can last longer than mineral oil even at extreme conditions in an engine.

Synthetic oil is more expensive than mineral oil, nevertheless, it is a superior lubricant to keep your car healthy. With mineral oil, it is recommended you change the oil every 5000 to 10,000 miles. Whereas using synthetic oil, you may change the oil every 20,000 miles.

Finally, it is important to note regardless of the type of oil you use, you should change your engine oil based on the recommended interval because it gets contaminated with combustion by-products that accumulate at about the same rate regardless of oil type.

The largest tidal power plant in the world

Indonesia will build the largest tidal power plant in the world in the straits of Larantuka at the Island of Flores. The power plant is designed to provide electricity to more than 100,000 residents in that area.

This Larantuka power plant project aligns with Indonesia’s commitment to increase the share of renewable energy in the total energy supply to 25% by 2025. It also commits to reduce the emission of CO2 by 300 million tonnes by 2030.

The tapping of ocean energy, consisting of wave and tidal energy to produce clean and cheaper power will grow significantly.  According to Market Research Future, the annual growth rate of the global wave and tidal market is expected to be more than 17% till 2023.

Please read this great article on “Larantuka Straits, Indonesia will be home to the largest tidal power plant in the world” written by Novrida Masli.

You can learn how to tap the energy from the ocean in this video.

Lava Laze of Kilauea

 

Watch this spectacular USGS video showing lava laze formed by the lava of Kilauea volcano flowing into ocean at Kapoho bay on June 4, 2018.

The lava is from Kilauea Volcano’s lower east Rift Zone entering the ocean. The ocean entry is about a half-mile wide. The flow sends a large laze plume into the air along the coast.

 

What is lava laze?

When the lava flow goes into the ocean water, it boils the water and creates a white acidic plume. That’s laze.

“It’s a complex chemical reaction that occurs between the lava flow and seawater,” said Wendy Stovall, a volcanologist with the U.S. Geological Survey. “It creates a mixture of condensed acidic steam, hydrochloric acid gas and tiny shards of volcanic glass.”

From the air, the plume looks like exhaust from a factory or the white smoke released during a forest fire.

If you’re underneath the plume, a light sprinkle of rain as corrosive as battery acid can fall on you. The acid can burn your skin, irritate your eyes and make it difficult to breathe. In rare cases, the damage can be permanent.

Source: LA Times article by Heidi Chang

Geothermal Plants near a Volcano

Geothermal plants can be safely situated near a volcano, says Dr. Roland Horne, Thomas Davies Barrow Professor in the School of Earth Sciences and Senior Fellow at the Precourt Institute for Energy at Standord University.

You can read the outstanding article from Stanford University titled Geothermal at the foot of Kilauea on this and on the recent volcano eruption of Mt. Kilauea in Hawaii at https://earth.stanford.edu/news/geothermal-foot-kilauea?linkId=52195066.

In this article, Dr. Roland Horne discusses geothermal energy in the face of natural hazards and a way to tap the earth’s heat far from volcanoes in the future.

I highly recommend you read the article that I mention above. In this article you can also watch the awesome lava flow from a fissure of Mt. Kilauea on May 19, 2018 and learn about Stanford University’s School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences.

Digital Rock Physics – Core Analysis Using Digital Technology

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Offshore oil and gas processing platform,

In the last decade, there has been an important breakthrough in how petroleum engineers and geoscientists obtained oil and gas reservoir rock properties.

Traditionally, reservoir rock properties or petrophysical properties such as porosity, pore size distribution, effective and relative permeability, capillary pressure, water saturation and other reservoir parameters are determined from Special Core Analysis (SCAL), electric logs and well pressure transient tests. In recent years, a new method in determining rock properties using Digital Rock Physics (DRP) has gained serious attention from petroleum engineers, petro-physicists and geoscientists.

What is digital rock physics? Digital rock physics is also referred to as digital core analysis. In this measurement method, high-resolution digital images of the rock pores and mineral grains of selected reservoir core samples are made and analyzed. These images are usually 3D digital X-ray micro-tomographic images. The rock properties are then determined using numerical simulation at the pore scale.

The significant benefit of this new DRP technology is now a large number of complex reservoir parameters can be determined faster and more accurately than the traditional laboratory measurements or well testing methods.

Using the DRP technology to determine the rock properties, oil and gas companies can now analyze their reservoir capacity and performance more accurately and sooner during the field evaluation and development phase. This, in turn, allows them to develop and manage their reservoirs more efficiently and economically.

Source – Digital Rock Physics for Fast and Accurate Special Core Analysis in Carbonates – A Chapter in New Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry – By  Mohammed Zubair Kalam

Note: If you like to read the complete write-up of this source article, please visit http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/40517/InTech-Digital_rock_physics_for_fast_and_accurate_special_core_analysis_in_carbonates.pdf

 

Gas Handling, Conditioning and Processing

This gas handling, conditioning and processing course is designed and presented by Dr Maurice Stewart to teach you how to design, select, specify, install, test and trouble-shoot your gas processing facilities.

This gas handling, conditioning and processing course has been attended by thousands of oil and gas professionals since Dr Maurice Stewart began teaching it more than 20 years ago. Dr Stewart is a co-author of a widely acclaimed “Surface Production Operations: Design of Gas Handling Facilities” along with Ken Arnold.

By attending this course, participants will:

1. Know the important parameters in designing, selecting, installing, operating and trouble-shooting gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities.
2. Understand the uncertainties and assumptions inherent in designing and operating the equipment in these systems and the limitations, advantages and disadvantages associated with their use.
3. Learn how to size, select, specify, operate, maintain, test and trouble-shoot surface equipment used with the handling, conditioning and processing of natural gas and associated liquids such as separators, heat exchangers, absorption and fractionation systems, dehydration systems, refrigeration, low temperature separation units, JT plants and compression systems.
4. Know how to evaluate and choose the correct process for a given situation.

Course Content

In this 5-day course, Dr Maurice Stewart will cover the following topics:
• Fluid properties, basic gas laws and phase behaviour
• Well Configurations, surface safety systems (SSS) and emergency support systems (ESS)
• Gas Processing systems, selection and planning
• Water-hydrocarbon phase behaviour, hydrate formation prevention and inhibition
• Heat transfer theory and process heat duty
• Heat exchangers: configurations, selection and sizing
• Gas-liquid separation and factors affecting separation
• Types of separators and scrubbers, and their construction
• Gas-liquid separators and sizing
• Liquid-liquid separators and sizing
• Three phase separator sizing
• Pressure vessels: the internals, mechanical design and safety factors
• Separator operating problems and practical solutions
• Gas compression theory, compression ratio and number of stages
• Compressor selection: centrifugal compressors vs. reciprocating compressors
• Vapor recovery units, screw compressors and vane compressors
• Compression station design and safety systems
• Performance curves for reciprocating compressors
• Absorption process and absorbers
• Adsorption process and adsorbers
• Glycol gas dehydration unit design and operation
• Glycol unit operating variables and trouble shooting
• Glycol selection and glycol regeneration
• Acid gas sweetening processes and selection
• Fractionation, refrigeration plants, expander plants and J-T plants
• Process control and safety systems

Course Materials

Participants will receive the following course materials:
1. The 3rd Edition of Volume 2 of the widely acclaimed “Surface Production Operations: Design of Gas Handling Facilities” written by Ken Arnold and Dr Maurice Stewart. This textbook continues to be the standard for industry and has been used by thousands since its first printing over fifteen years ago.
2. A comprehensive set of lecture notes for after course reading and reference
3. An extensive set of practical in-class “case study” exercises developed by Dr Stewart that will be used to emphasize the design and “trouble-shooting” pitfalls often encountered in the industry.

Who Should Attend

• Facility engineers, production engineers, design and construction engineers, team leaders, operations engineers, maintenance team leaders/engineers and other personnel who are or will be responsible for the designing, selecting, sizing, specifying, installing, testing, operating and maintaining gas handling facilities, gas plant facilities and gas pipelines.
• Experienced professionals who want to review or broaden their understanding of gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities and gas pipeline operation and maintenance.
• Professionals with little to moderate experience with the handling or processing of natural gas and associated liquids.

If you like to receive a pdf file of this course outline, please contact us.

Registration Information

Course date: November 19-23, 2018
Location: Singapore
Tuition: US$4500

Registration Form

If you or your people want to attend this course, please register HERE.

Contact information
LDI Training Pte Ltd
369 Holland Road #02-04
Singapore 278640

Email: lditrain@singnet.com.sg
Website: https://oilandgascourses.org

About Dr. Maurice Stewart

Dr Maurice Stewart, PE, CSP, is a Registered Professional Engineer and Certified Safety Professional with over 40 years of experience in international consulting, trouble-shooting oil, water and gas processing facilities; and leading safety audits, hazards reviews and risk assessments.

He is internationally respected for his teaching excellence and series of widely acclaimed textbooks in the areas of designing, selecting, specifying, installing, operating and trouble-shooting:

  • Oil and water handling facilities
  • Gas handling, conditioning and processing facilities
  • Facility piping and pipeline systems
  • Gas dehydration and sweetening facilities
  • Pumps, compressors and drivers
  • Instrumentation, process control and safety systems
  • Oil and gas measuring and metering systems

Dr Stewart is the author of several new textbooks related to oil and gas processing facilities; and he is one of the co-authors of the SPE Petroleum Engineering Handbook.  He has authored and co-authored over 90 technical papers and contributed to numerous conferences as a keynote speaker. Dr Stewart has taught over 60,000 professionals from more than 100 oil and gas related companies in 90 countries.

Dr Stewart serves on numerous international committees responsible for developing or revising industry Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices for such organizations as ANSI, API, ASME, ISA, NACE and SPE. He is currently serving on the following American Petroleum Institute (API) committees: API RP 14C, RP 14E, RP 14F, RP 14G, RP 14J, RP 500 and RP 75. He has developed and taught worldwide short courses for API related to Surface Production Operations. In 1985, Dr Stewart received the National Society of Professional Engineers “Engineer-of-the-year” award.

Dr Stewart holds a BS in Mechanical Engineering from Louisiana State University and MS degrees in Mechanical, Civil (Structural Option) and Petroleum Engineering from Tulane University and a PhD in Petroleum Engineering from Tulane University.  Dr. Stewart served as a Professor of Petroleum Engineering at Tulane University and Louisiana State University.

Here are the most frequently requested Dr Maurice Stewart courses:

  • Oil and water handling facilities
  • Gas handling, conditioning and processing
  • Production safety systems
  • The new API RP 14C and API RP 17V
  • Plant piping and pipeline systems
  • Oil and gas project management
  • Pumps, compressors and drivers

If you are interested in having an inhouse course with Dr Maurice Stewart, please contact LDI Training at LDITrain@singnet.com.sg.