Digital Rock Physics – Core Analysis Using Digital Technology

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Offshore oil and gas processing platform,

In the last decade, there has been an important breakthrough in how petroleum engineers and geoscientists obtained oil and gas reservoir rock properties.

Traditionally, reservoir rock properties or petrophysical properties such as porosity, pore size distribution, effective and relative permeability, capillary pressure, water saturation and other reservoir parameters are determined from Special Core Analysis (SCAL), electric logs and well pressure transient tests. In recent years, a new method in determining rock properties using Digital Rock Physics (DRP) has gained serious attention from petroleum engineers, petro-physicists and geoscientists.

What is digital rock physics? Digital rock physics is also referred to as digital core analysis. In this measurement method, high-resolution digital images of the rock pores and mineral grains of selected reservoir core samples are made and analyzed. These images are usually 3D digital X-ray micro-tomographic images. The rock properties are then determined using numerical simulation at the pore scale.

The significant benefit of this new DRP technology is now a large number of complex reservoir parameters can be determined faster and more accurately than the traditional laboratory measurements or well testing methods.

Using the DRP technology to determine the rock properties, oil and gas companies can now analyze their reservoir capacity and performance more accurately and sooner during the field evaluation and development phase. This, in turn, allows them to develop and manage their reservoirs more efficiently and economically.

Source – Digital Rock Physics for Fast and Accurate Special Core Analysis in Carbonates – A Chapter in New Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry – By  Mohammed Zubair Kalam

Note: If you like to read the complete write-up of this source article, please visit http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/40517/InTech-Digital_rock_physics_for_fast_and_accurate_special_core_analysis_in_carbonates.pdf

 

Green Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a clean and efficient energy source. It is being used to power hydrogen cars and buses in several environmentally conscious countries. Hydrogen cars are very clean. They have zero emission and they emit only water vapor. As an example, the city of Aberdeen in Scotland is using hydrogen buses to reduce emission and boost air quality at the city centre.

As energy carrier, hydrogen stores and delivers energy efficiently. Hydrogen cars uses fuel cells to convert the chemical energy stored in the hydrogen into electricity, whereas electric cars use the electricity stored in the car batteries to power the electric motors.

Although many compounds, especially hydrocarbons and water, contain lots of hydrogen atoms, free hydrogen is very scarce in nature. Our air has only .00005% of free hydrogen. Currently most hydrogen is produced from fossil fuel by stripping off the hydrogen atoms from the hydrocarbons. Therefore, hydrogen cars are not considered as totally green.

To make hydrogen cars truly green, people are considering using green hydrogen. Green hydrogen is hydrogen which is produced using electricity generated from renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and geothermal.

New Zealand is currently experimenting powering hydrogen cars using hydrogen produced using geothermal resources.

Toyota expects 30% of vehicles to be hydrogen powered by 2050.

Jamin Djuang

21 February 2018