Top Oil and Gas Operators in Indonesia in 2022

Production and drilling operations at the Bekapai field of Pertamina Hulu Mahakam

Here are the fifteen oil and gas operators in Indonesia with significant production volume and the potential to increase them, according to SKK Migas.

  • BP Berau
  • Eni East Sepinggan
  • Exxon Mobil Cepu 
  • Husky-CNOOC Madura
  • Medco E&P Grissik
  • PetroChina International Jabung
  • Premier Oil Natuna Sea B.V.
  • Pertamina EP
  • Pertamina Hulu Energi Jambi Merang
  • Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ
  • Pertamina Hulu Energi OSES
  • Pertamina Hulu Kalimantan Timur
  • Pertamina Hulu Mahakam
  • Pertamina Hulu Rokan 
  • Pertamina Hulu Sanga Sanga

This post is adapted b LDI Training from information posted by SKK Migas, the oil and gas regulator of Indonesia.

The Humongous Well Blowout of Arun Field

The biggest gas well blowout in Indonesia happened in 1978 when the CII-2 well in the Arun field was being drilled.

This well blowout is also the biggest in Southeast Asia ever.

About The Arun Field

The Arun field is a supergiant gas field. It had 16 trillion cubic feet of original gas in place and was discovered in 1971 by Mobil Oil in Aceh, Sumatera.

The Arun gas reservoir had abnormally high temperatures and pressure of 178 degrees C and 7100 PSIG respectively. The reservoir is made up of carbonate rock located at 10,000 feet depth.

Due to its high pressure, porosity, and reservoir thickness of about 500 feet, the Arun gas wells were extremely productive. Each well could produce more than 100 MMSCF of gas per day.

To monetize the huge amount of the discovered gas, the Arun LNG plant was built. The Arun LNG plant is the first LNG plant built in Indonesia and also in Southeast Asia.

The Blowout

The huge blowout in the Arun field happened in 1978 when the CII-2 well in the Arun field was being drilled.

The blowout killing efforts were led by Red Adair. Initially, the well control team attempted to kill the well from the top.  However, it failed.

Finally, the blowout was killed by drilling a directional well and then pumping a huge amount of acid followed by heavy mud into the bottom of the CII-2 well.

The blowout was so huge and due to the extremely high reservoir pressure, more than fifty high-pressure and high-volume pumps, and one hundred pump operators and engineers were brought in from several countries to kill it.

The photo above, courtesy of Pete Hackney, showed another Arun well, CIII-8, that blew out two years later in 1980. You can see the rig drilling a directional well that would intersect the blowing-out well to kill it.

Oil and Gas Activities in Indonesia in May – June 2022

A pumping well of Pertamina. Photo courtesy of Pertamina

Here is the monthly summary of oil and gas exploration and production activities in Indonesia in May 2022, according to SKK Migas.

·     Daily crude oil production: 616,800 BOPD
·     Daily gas production: 5321 MMSCFD
·     Daily oil and gas production: 1,567,000 BOEPD
·     Exploration wells drilled YTD: 11
·     Development wells drilled YTD: 291
·     2-D seismic survey completed YTD: 559 KM
·     3-D seismic survey completed YTD: 269 KM2
·     Amount of investment YTD: USD 3.9 billion
·     Number of Work Areas: 170

Here are other recent happenings in the oil patch of Indonesia.

·     Pertamina recorded $2.046 billion corporate profit in 2021. This almost doubles the profit it made in 2020. 
·     Pertamina EP has completed the construction of the Beringin A gathering station in Muara Enim in South Sumatera. The gathering station is designed to increase the capacity of the Prabumulih field to handle an additional 15 million MMSCFD of gas and 382 BPD of condensate.  
·     Pertamina Hulu Energy has made hydrocarbon discovery from its exploration well GQX-1 in the Offshore North West Java (ONWJ) work area.
·     Gas production from the newly completed JML1 platform in the Jumelai field operated by Pertamina Hulu Mahakam had come on stream. The gas is piped to the production facility of the Senipah-Peciko-South Mahakam field. The Jumelai project is expected to produce 45 MMSCFD of gas and 710 BPD of condensate.
·     PT BSP (Bumi Siak Pusako) has started drilling its exploration well Nuri-1X in the CPP (Corridor Plain and Pekanbaru) Block in Riau. The company plans to drill 15 development wells and two exploration wells in 2022.
·     Pertamina Hulu Energy has started drilling the exploration well NSO-R2 in the North Sumatera Offshore work area.
·     Gas production from the new platform WPS-3 of Pertamina Hulu Mahakam came on stream on 10 June 2022. The installation of the WPS-3 platform and the subsequent drilling of the development wells are part of the JSN (Jumelai, North Sisi, and North Nubi) project. This platform is designed to handle 45 MMSCFD of gas.

This article is curated by Jamin Djuang, Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training.

High Potential Individuals

Stanford University Campus – Photo courtesy of Pexels – Zetong Li

Do you want to be a “high potential individual”? The secret lies in having a good education.

Education is a great social equalizer. A good education can level the playing field for everyone, especially disadvantaged people. Education can open more and better opportunities for them in the future and provide the chance for them to work and live in the places of their dream.

Indeed, the UK government has just announced it is inviting “high potential individuals” to apply to work and live in the UK.

You are considered a “high potential individual” by the UK Government if you are a recent graduate from the world’s top 37 universities outside of the UK. These are universities outside the UK that appeared at least twice in the Top 50 rankings in 2021.

So, you are a “high potential individual” if you are a recent graduate from the following 37 universities located outside the UK:

  • California Institute of Technology (Caltech) — U.S.
  • Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) — Hong Kong
  • Columbia University — U.S.
  • Cornell University — U.S.
  • Duke University — U.S.
  • Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL Switzerland) — Switzerland
  • ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) — Switzerland
  • Harvard University — U.S.
  • Johns Hopkins University — U.S.
  • Karolinska Institute — Sweden
  • Kyoto University — Japan
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) — U.S.
  • McGill University — Canada
  • Nanyang Technological University (NTU) — Singapore
  • National University of Singapore — Singapore
  • New York University (NYU) — U.S.
  • Northwestern University — USA
  • Paris Sciences et Lettres – PSL Research University — France
  • Peking University — China
  • Princeton University —  U.S.
  • Stanford University — U.S.
  • Tsinghua University — China
  • University of British Columbia — Canada
  • University of California, Berkeley — U.S.
  • The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) — U.S.
  • University of California, San Diego — U.S.
  • University of Chicago US — U.S.
  • University of Hong Kong — Hong Kong
  • University of Melbourne — Australia
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor — U.S.
  • University of Munich (LMU Munich) — Germany
  • University of Pennsylvania — U.S.
  • The University of Texas at Austin —  U.S.
  • University of Tokyo — Japan
  • University of Toronto — Canada
  • University of Washington — U.S.
  • Yale University — U.S.

Now we know why everyone wants to go to the best universities in the world.

The Bekapai – From an oil field to a gas field

The Bekapai field underwent Phase 2B Expansion. Photo from Pertamina.

THE DISCOVERY

In 2022, the Bekapai oil field, located offshore of the Mahakam Delta in East Kalimantan in Indonesia, celebrates its 50th anniversary.

The Bekapai field was discovered in April 1972 by Total along with its partner, Japex.

The field was almost undiscovered had Total’s exploration team given up its exploration drilling campaign after drilling six dry wells.

With the discovery of the Bekapai field, Total Indonesie went on to discover many big oil and gas fields in the Mahakam block – Tunu, Sisi-Nubi, Tambora, Handil, and Peciko.

Although the Bekapai is not as big as the other fields in the Mahakam block, the Bekapai field is the most well-known field in the Mahakam block being the first oil field that was discovered by Total Indonesie in East Kalimantan. A nice park in Balikpapan is named after Bekapai – Bekapai Park.

FIELD DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION

The reservoirs of the Bekapai field are described as complex multi-layered reservoirs.

Total Indonesie constructed ten platforms and drilled 74 development wells between 1974 and 1996.

The Bekapai field began as an oil field. Oil production started in 1974 with peak production at around 60,000 BOPD in 1978. Then its oil production declined slowly until it reached around 1,000 BOPD in 2007.

As its oil production reached its lowest level, to rejuvenate its oil and gas production the field underwent several redevelopment and transformation projects.

FIELD EXPANSION AND TRANSFORMATION

Phase 1 Expansion

Total Indonesie initiated the Phase 1 field expansion project in 2008. The company drilled 9 development wells and production increased to 10,000 BOPD and 46 MMSCFD of gas by 2013.

With the success achieved in Phase 1 Expansion, the company conducted a 3D seismic survey to assess the potential of the Bekapai field for further development.

Phase 2A Expansion

Based on the encouraging seismic results, the company embarked on the Phase 2A expansion project to further develop the Bekapai Field.

The company drilled two development wells in 2014 and its oil production increased to 11,500 BOPD. This is a record oil production rate of the Bekapai field in its first 25 years of production.

Phase 2B Expansion

As the oil reserves of the Bekapai are depleted, Total’s engineers turn their attention to producing its gas.

The objective of Phase 2B Expansion is to produce the so-far untapped gas accumulation in the Bekapai reservoirs. The plan is to increase the capacity of the field to produce 100 MMSCFD of gas.

Here were what was involved in the Phase 2B Expansion Project.

  • Produced the gas remaining in the gas caps.
  • Increased the capacity of the offshore production facilities to produce 100 MMSCFD of gas.
  • Platform modifications
  • Constructing a 12,6 km long submarine 12-inch pipeline from the Bekapai field to the Peciko field.

Phase 2B Expansion transformed the Bekapai field from an oil field to a gas field. The project increased the gas production of the Bekapai field from around 40 MMSCFD to 92 MMSCFD in 2015, making it a significant gas contributor to LNG production.

Phase 3 Expansion

Pertamina Hulu Mahakam as the new operator continues to further tap the gas potentials of the Bekapai field under the Phase 3 Expansion.

This ongoing expansion project involves modifying the manifold wellhead platforms BH and BE to accommodate 5 new development wells.

This project is expected to produce an additional 27 MMSCFD of gas when it is completed in November 2022.

POSTLUDE

On January 2, 2018, Pertamina Hulu Mahakam became the operator of the Bekapai field and all the fields in the Mahakam block.

Pertamina Hulu Mahakam maintains the spirit of innovation and continues to develop the remaining potential of the 50-year-old oil field.

Pertamina Hulu Mahakam managed to reach ten years without LTI (Lost Time Injury) on August 27, 2021.

And finally, with the saying “An old oil field never dies”, may the Bekapai field continues to find a new life.

Oil and Gas Projects in Indonesia in 2022

Sail away from Bintan to East Kalimantan of two topsides for North Sisi and North Nubi fields of Pertamina Hulu Mahakam on 4 November 2021.

Oil and gas operators in Indonesia are investing USD 1.35 billion to expand and further develop their existing fields to increase their oil and gas production in 2022.

Here are the 12 oil and gas field expansion and development projects earmarked by SKK Migas to produce additional 19,000 barrels per day of oil and 567 MMSCFD of gas in Indonesia in 2022.

Bukit Tua Phase 2B Development At Offshore East Java

Operator: Petronas Carigali Ketapang II Ltd

Production Target: 14000 BOPD and 30 MMSCFD

Scope of work: Installation of Platform BTJT-B and drilling of development wells.

Completion date: 12 April 2022 (Completed)

Investment:  US$ 117 million

Hiu Gas Field Phase 2 development at Block B Natuna

Operator: Medco E&P Natuna

Scope of work: Drilling two development wells Hiu A05 and Hiu A06

Target of production: 49 MMSCFD of gas

Investment: 45 million USD

Expected date of completion: May 2022

Jumelai Field Development in East Kalimantan

Operator: Pertamina Hulu Mahakam

Scope of work: Installation of platform JML1 and drilling of development wells

Production target: 45 MMSCFD of gas

Completion date: May 2022

Investment: US$ 65 million

Baru Gas Plant Modification in Riau

Operator: Energi Mega Persada (EMP Bentu)

Scope of work: Gas plant modification and suppling 30 MMSCFD of gas to Tenayan power plant of PLN

Expected date of completion: May 2022

Investment: 13.5 million USD

South Sembakung Production Facility Expansion in East Kalimantan

Operator: JOB PMEPS – Joint Operation Body of Pertamina and Medco EP Simenggaris

Target of production increase: 30 MMSCFD of gas

Expected completion date: June 2022

Investment: 9,2 million USD

Development of MDA and MBH fields at offshore Madura

Operator: Husky CNOOC Madura Ltd (HCML)

Scope of work: Drilling of 5 wells at MDA field and 2 wells at MBH field to supply gas to the East Java Gas Pipeline.

Target of production increase: A total of 175 MMscfd of gas from MBH in May 2022 and MDA in July 2022.

Total investment: 625 Million USD

Belida Gas Field Extension at Block B Natuna

Operator: Medco E&P Natuna

Target of production: 40 MMSCFD of gas

Investment: 78 Million USD

Expected date of completion: August 2022

Tanjung Field Polymer Flood

Operator: Pertamina EP in South Kalimantan

Scope of work: Full-scale polymer flooding

Target: Increasing oil production and oil recovery factor

Expected date of completion: September 2022

Investment: 19 million USD

MAC Field Development in Offshore Madura

Operator: Husky CNOOC Madura Ltd (HCML)

Scope of work: Installation of a platform and pipelines, and drilling of development wells

Target of production: 60 MMSCFD of gas

Expected date of completion: October 2022

Investment: 163 Million USD

North Sisi and North Nubi Development in East Kalimantan

Operator: Pertamina Hulu Mahakam

Scope of work: Installation of Platform WPS3 at North Sisi and Platform WPN4 at North Nubi, and drilling of development wells.

Production Target: A total of 90 MMSCFD

Expected Completion date: Second half of 2022

Investment: US$ 133 million

Bekapai Field Phase 3 Expansion

Operator: Pertamina Hulu Mahakam

Scope of work: Modification of Manifold Wellhead Platform BH and BE to accommodate 5 new development wells.

Production target: 27 MMscfd

Completion date:  November 2022

Investment: US$ 28 million

YY Field Redevelopment at Offshore North West Java

Operator: Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ

Project scope: Relocating the wellhead platform due to the blowout of well YYA-1 in 2019

Target of production increase: 2000 BOPD and 1 MMSCFD of gas

Date of Completion: December 2022

Investment: 56.4 Million USD

This article is curated by Jamin Djuang, Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training, based on information provided by SKK Migas and other sources.

Oil and Gas Projects of Indonesia in 2021

The North Processing Unit of Pertamina Hulu Mahakam by the Mahakam River. Photo courtesy of Pertamina Hulu Mahakam.

Oil operators in Indonesia completed 15 projects that were targeted to increase oil and gas production in 2021, according to SKK Migas.

Here are the 15 projects completed in 2021 that generated additional 18,500 barrels of oil and 746 MMSCF of gas per day:


·      Gas Compression at Lematang – Medco E&P Lematang


·      Non- associated gas compression at West Betara – PetroChina Jabung


·      Gas Pipeline to Balikpapan Refinery – Pertamina Hulu Mahakam


·      Merakes Deep-water Gas Field Development – Eni East Sepinggan


·      Gas Production at South Jambi B – Jindi South Jambi Block B Co


·      Early Production Facility at Belato field – Seleraya Merangin Dua


·      Gathering Station Akasia Bagus at Jatibarang field – Pertamina EP


·      Sidayu Field Development – Saka Indonesia Pangkah 


·      West Pangkah Field Development – Saka Indonesia Pangkah


·      EOR of the Jirak Structure at Pendopo Field – Pertamina EP


·      Development Well Drilling – Bambu Besar Field of Pertamina EP


·      Field development – The KLD field of Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ


·      Gathering Station Upgrade at Bangadua Field – Pertamina EP Jatibarang


·      Construction of a new Oil Plant – Semberah Field of Pertamina Hulu Sanga Sanga


·      Debottlenecking of Jangkrik Floating Production Unit – Eni Muara Bakau

In 2022, oil companies plan to invest USD 1.35 billion in 12 projects that will add 19,000 BOPD and 567 MMSCFD of gas.

LDI Training

Data Science in Oil and Gas

Photo by Vitaly Vlasov from Pexels

Firstly, what is Data Science?

Data science is using analysis of past and current data to predict future performance or results.

Oil and gas companies collect a huge amount of data in their exploration, drilling, and production activities. They have huge volumes of unused and undervalued data.

With the advances in data science and machine learning, oil companies have begun to realize the value of the data they have been collecting.

They now realise that managing this data and using it as a strategic asset can significantly impact its operational success, increase safety and reduce operational cost.

For example, in exploration, seismic data and geological data, such as rock types in nearby wells, can be used to predict oil pockets.

In production, production data can be used to forecast future production capacity, schedule production, and determine the number of future wells to be drilled.

In drilling, engineers can use drilling data to determine the best drilling locations, reduce costs, improve safety and shorten the drilling time.

Here are several articles by Yohanes Nuwara on the applications of data science and machine learning in oil and gas operations.

ML sonic log prediction in Volve field – https://towardsdatascience.com/prediction-of-p-sonic-log-in-the-volve-oil-field-using-machine-learning-9a4afdb92fe8

ML prediction in hydraulic fracturing – https://medium.com/analytics-vidhya/machine-learning-for-prediction-in-hydraulic-fracturing-43de92b0e10a

ML lithology prediction from drilling data – https://towardsdatascience.com/oilfield-lithology-prediction-from-drilling-data-with-machine-learning-520ee9ff6e7c

Rate of penetration optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization – https://towardsdatascience.com/faster-drilling-with-machine-learning-and-particle-swarm-optimization-335bb28d687

As the Oil and Gas industry grows and becomes receptive to big data and the use of Data Science, it can only move forward. 

If you want to learn how to use Data Science and its applications, Yohanes Nuwara will teach “DATA SCIENCE AND MACHINE LEARNING IN OIL AND GAS” on May 7, 11, 14, 18, and 21, 2022.

The Moment of Truth of Oil Exploration – The DST

A successful DST Test in East Kalimantan, Indonesia – Photo courtesy of Rick Patenaude

Drill-stem testing (DST) in exploration wells is the last step of oil and gas exploration. It is the moment of truth in the quest for the elusive oil and gas.

Witnessing a drill-stem test can be daunting as the company has invested a lot of time and money to find a new oil or gas field. As DST results can move the company’s share prices, during the test, the test results can only be communicated to a few people back in the company headquarters.

I have witnessed both successful DST and unsuccessful DST.

Here are the five moments of truth of a DST in exploration wells.

The first moment of truth is after the DST valve is open, you begin to see air bubbles showing up in a bucket of water that is placed on the rig floor. As the air bubbles become stronger, you know something is coming out from the test interval.

The second moment of truth is when you see the fire at the burner. When you see the flare, it confirms you have found hydrocarbon.

The third moment of truth is when we know the flow rates of the hydrocarbon fluids that come out from the well.

The fourth moment of truth is after you have measured the initial bottomhole shut-in pressure and the final shut-in bottomhole pressure. Reservoir engineers will love these two pressures to be about the same. If the final BHSI pressure is much lower than the initial BHSI pressure, it may indicate the reservoir is quite small.

The fifth moment of truth is when you know the fluid composition when you receive the fluid analysis report from the laboratory. This last moment of truth may kill all the prior excitements during a DST.

Here is to illustrate the significance and implications of the composition of the reservoir fluid.

In 1973, AGIP discovered the huge East Natuna gas field off northern Natuna Island of Indonesia. However, as the gas contains a very large percentage of CO2 – 71% – the huge gas field is still undeveloped today.

Finally, perhaps the best moment of truth in a DST is when a difficult and high-risk test, such as testing a high pressure or high H2S well, is completed successfully and safely, and the people involved in the test can leave the rig with a sense of accomplishment.

This article is written by Jamin Djuang, the author of The Story of Oil and Gas: How Oil and Gas Are Explored, Drilled and Produced.

Oil Fields in Indonesia with EOR Potential

A jetty at Balikpapan Refinery – Photo shared by Zaldi Ansyah

In the efforts to increase the oil production of Indonesia, the government has identified 34 oil fields as candidates having potentials for enhanced oil recovery.

Here are the fields and their locations:

  • Rantau field – Aceh
  • Bangko field – Rokan Block
  • Bekasap field – Rokan Block
  • Kulim field – Rokan Block
  • Balam South field – Rokan Block
  • Petani field – Rokan Block
  • Pematang field – Rokan block
  • Zamrud field – Coastal Plain and Pekanbaru (CPP) block
  • Beruk field – CPP block
  • Pedada field – CPP block
  • Pusak field – CPP block
  • Sago field – Pertamina EP Asset 1 Jambi
  • Ramba field – Pertamina EP Asset 1 Jambi
  • Limau Q51 field – Pertamina EP Asset 2 South Sumatera – Limau
  • Jirak field – Pertamina EP Asset 2 South Sumatera – Limau
  • Belida field – Natuna D Alpha block
  • Melibur field – Siak, Riau
  • Gemah field – Jambi, South Sumatera
  • Makmur field – Jambi, South Sumatera
  • Kaji field – Rimau block
  • Semoga field – Rimau block
  • Iliran High field – Rimau block
  • Rama field – South East Sumatera (SES) block
  • Krisna field – SES block
  • Widuri field – SES block
  • E-main field – Offshore North West Java (ONWJ)
  • Zulu field – ONWJ
  • MQ field – ONWJ
  • Jatibarang field – Pertamina EP Asset 3 in West Java
  • Mudi field – Pertamina EP Asset 4 in East Java
  • Sukowati field – Pertamina EP Asset 4 in East Java
  • Tanjung field – Pertamina EP Asset 5 in Kalimantan
  • Handil field – Mahakam block
  • Gundih field – Central Java

How Strong Is Your Self-Leadership

ASSESSING YOUR SELF-LEADERSHIP STRENGTH

There is a saying that before you can lead others, you must first lead yourself. In other words, it is not possible to lead others if you cannot lead yourself.

Do you know how strong is your self-leadership?

Here is a quick and simple self-test to assess your self-leadership strengths and discover your weaknesses and opportunities for self-improvement.

Circle YES if you possess and demonstrate the following self-leadership qualities according to McKinsey and Company.

ON SELF-AWARENESS AND SELF-MANAGEMENT

  • Understanding own emotions and triggers. Yes / No 
  • Self-control and regulation. Yes / No
  • Understanding own strengths. Yes / No
  • Integrity. Yes / No
  • Self-motivation and wellness. Yes / No
  • Self-confidence. Yes / No

ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP

  • Courage and risk-taking. Yes / No
  • Driving change and innovation. Yes / No
  • Energy, passion, and optimism. Yes / No
  • Breaking orthodoxies. Yes / No

ON GOALS ACHIEVEMENT

  • Ownership and decisiveness. Yes / No
  • Achievement orientation. Yes / No
  • Grit and persistence. Yes / No
  • Coping with uncertainty. Yes / No
  • Self-development. Yes / No

SCORING AND ASSESSMENT

Count the number of YES that you circle.

If your score is high, congratulations! It means you have many of the qualities of strong self-leadership and good self-management.

If your score is not high, you can improve your self-leadership by knowing the qualities you are lacking and embracing the right values that will enhance your self-leadership and self-discipline. 

Here are inspiring quotes from Oprah Winfrey.

“It doesn’t matter who you are, where you came from. The ability to triumph begins with you. Always.”

Finally, to be a leader, you must have integrity. All your efforts will go to nothing if you don’t have it.

“Real integrity is doing the right thing, knowing that nobody’s going to know whether you did it or not.”

The First Geothermal Plants Around The World

The Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant – The first geothermal power plant in Japan. Photo courtesy of Dr. Roland N. Horne

The utilization of geothermal resources to produce electricity has been increasing since the invention of the first geothermal energy generator by Piero Ginori Conti in Italy in 1904.

By 2021, there are more than one hundred geothermal power plants located around the world producing electricity with a total installed capacity of 15854 MW.

Want to know when and where the first geothermal power plants were set up around the world?

Here are the first geothermal power plants built in significant geothermal energy-producing countries.

THE LARDERELLO PLANT – ITALY – 1913

The first and the oldest geothermal power plant in the world is in Larderello in Italy.

Following the invention of the first geothermal energy generator by Piero Ginori Conti in 1904, the Larderello 1 geothermal power plant was completed in 1913 with a capacity of 250 kW.

The Larderello area now has 34 geothermal power plants having a total capacity of 800 MW.

By the way, the Larderello steam field is so awesome that it is referred to as Valle del Diavolo – Devil’s Valley.

Today, Italy has a total installed capacity of 944 MW making it the seventh-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.

WAIRAKEI PLANT – NEW ZEALAND – 1958

New Zealand is the second country in the world that built a geothermal power plant.

The first geothermal plant in New Zealand, the Wairakei Unit 1 station was completed in 1958 with a capacity of 11.2 MW. The Wairakei geothermal plant is located at North Taupo.

Today, the Wairakei geothermal power plant has a total combined capacity of 330 MW provided by Wairakei power stations 1 to 16, Te Mihi power stations 1 and 2 and Poihipi power station.

The number of geothermal power plants in New Zealand has grown to 15 producing 1037 MW of electricity making it the fifth-largest geothermal producing country in the world.

THE GEYSERS UNIT 1 PLANT – USA – 1960

The first geothermal power plant in the US is located at the Geysers. The Unit 1 plant was completed in 1960 with a capacity of 11 MW.

The Geysers geothermal field in California is the most prolific geothermal producing field in the US also in the world. It now has 18 geothermal power plants and a total installed capacity of 1590 MW.

Today the US with more than 69 geothermal power plants located in various states has a total installed capacity of 3722 MW. This makes the US the biggest geothermal energy producer in the world.

MATSUKAWA PLANT – JAPAN – 1966

The first geothermal power generation plant in Japan is the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant (Matsukawa Jinetsu Hatsudensho).

The plant started operating in 1966 with an initial capacity of 9.5 MW. It now has an installed capacity of 23.5 MW.

Today, Japan has more than 20 geothermal power plants operating in 18 locations producing 603 MW of electricity making it the tenth-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.

BJARNARFLAG PLANT – ICELAND – 1966

Bjarnarflag geothermal station is the oldest geothermal power plant in Iceland. Bjarnarflag was completed in 1966 having a capacity of 3 MW.

Following the success of the Bjarnarflag plant, several other power plants were built in Iceland.

Iceland, the land of ice and fire, is a natural place to tap its geothermal resources for energy. The country today produces 754 MW of electricity from its geothermal resources making it the ninth-largest geothermal producer in the world.

As 99.96% of its energy needs come from renewable resources, it is probably the greenest country in the world.

CERRO PRIETO PLANT – MEXICO – 1973

The first geothermal power plant in Mexico, Cerro Prieto 1 was commissioned in April 1973.

The Cerro Prieto field is the world’s largest known water-dominated geothermal field. It has five power stations with a total installed capacity of 820 MW.

Today, Mexico, generating 963 MW of electricity is the sixth-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.

KIZILDERE PLANT – TURKEY – 1974

The first geothermal power plant in Turkey is in Kizildere.

The Kizildere geothermal power plant began its operation in 1974 as a prototype system with a 500 KW capacity.

Ten years later, the Kızıldere Jeotermal Elektrik Santralı plant was commissioned in 1984 with an installed capacity of 17.4 MW.

In 2013, the Kizildere Geothermal Power Plant reached an installed capacity of 95 MW making it Turkey’s biggest.

Today, with a total of 1710 MW capacity, Turkey is the fourth largest geothermal energy producer in the world.

AHUACHAPAN PLANT – EL SALVADOR – 1975

The first geothermal power plant in El Salvador is located in Ahuachapan. It was built in 1975 with a capacity of 95 MW.

The second geothermal plant in El Salvador, the Berlin Power Plant, was later built with an installed capacity of 109 MW.

Currently, with a total capacity of 204 MW, geothermal energy generates 20% of the total energy needs in El Salvador.

The contribution of electricity from geothermal resources is set to increase in the future and two new geothermal power plants are scheduled to come online in 2023 and 2026 in the San Vicente and Chinameca fields.

LEYTE PLANT – THE PHILLIPPINES – 1977

The first geothermal power plant in the Philippines, the Leyte Geothermal Power Plant began operation in 1977.

Located on the island of Leyte, the plant started as a pilot plant using a portable 3 MW power generation unit connected to a wellhead.

With the success of the pilot plant, Leyte island now has five geothermal power plants.

Other geothermal plants in the Philippines are in the islands of Luzon, Mindanao, and Negros.

Today the Philippines with a total installed capacity of 1918 MW is the third largest geothermal energy producer in the world. 

OLKARIA I POWER STATION – KENYA – 1981

Olkaria I Geothermal Power Station is the first geothermal power plant in Kenya and Africa. The first unit having a capacity of 15 MW was commissioned in 1981.

Several units were added to the Olkaria I facility in later years bringing its total installed capacity to 185 MW by 1985.

Today Kenya has a total installed capacity of 861 MW making it the eighth largest geothermal energy producer in the world.

KAMOJANG PLANT – INDONESIA – 1982

Operating since 1982, the 235 MW Kamojang geothermal plant is the first geothermal power plant in Indonesia. It is located in the Garut area in West Java.

The Kamojang geothermal reservoir was first discovered by the Dutch more than one hundred years ago when it successfully drilled the first steam-producing well in Indonesia.

Today Indonesia has a total installed capacity of 2276 MW making it the second-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.

MOMOTOMBO PLANT – NICARAGUA – 1983

The Momotombo plant is the first geothermal power plant in Nicaragua.

Its first power generating unit of 35 MW was completed in 1983. A second 35 MW unit was later added in 1989 bringing the total capacity to 70 MW.

Nicaragua’s second geothermal plant is the San Jacinto Tizate which was completed in 2013 with an installed capacity of 72 MW.

MIRAVALLES PLANT – COSTA RICA – 1994

The first geothermal power plant in Costa is the 55 MW Miravalles plant commissioned in 1994.

Today with a total installed capacity of 207 MW, Costa Rica is the twelfth largest geothermal producer in the world.

ORTITLAN PLANT – GUATEMALA – 1998

The first geothermal power generation unit in Guatemala was built in Amatitlán geothermal area in 1998. It started as a portable power plant of 5 MW.

A full-scale 20 MW geothermal power plant, the Ortitlan, was later built in the Amatitlan area in 2008.

Guatemala’s second geothermal plant, the Orzunil, located in the Zunil geothermal area was completed with a capacity of 24 MW in 2001.

CERRO PABELLON PLANT – CHILE – 2017

The first geothermal power plant in Chile was built in 2017 by Geotermica del Norte (GDN), a joint venture between Enel Green Power Chile and ENAP.

Located at 4500 meters above sea level, the Cerro Pabellón is the highest geothermal plant in South America. It is located on the high plateau of the Atacama Desert in the Antofagasta Region of Chile.

The plant, which uses high enthalpy technology with a binary cycle, is the only operational geothermal plant in South America.

Its third power station with a capacity of 33 MW was completed in 2021 giving Cerro Pabellon a total power of 81 MW.

PLATANARES PLANT – HONDURAS – 2018

The first geothermal power plant of Honduras, the 35 MW Platanares geothermal plant was inaugurated in 2018.

CASANARE PLANT – COLOMBIA – 2021

Colombia inaugurated its first geothermal power unit located in Casanare in March 2021.

The first of its kind, this innovative 100 KW power unit takes advantage of the hot water produced along with the oil from the Las Maracas field.

YANGBAJAIN PLANT – TIBET – 1977

Yangbajain is the first geothermal power plant in Tibet, China. The plant was initially completed in 1977. It now has an installed capacity of 24 MW.

The Yangbajain plant is located at an elevation of 4800 meters above sea level making it the highest geothermal plant in the world.

EPILOGUE

The world is endowed with huge geothermal resources. As the world marches toward net zero-emission, we shall see the application of geothermal energy as a renewable resource to generate the electricity we need will continue to expand.

Indonesia inaugurated two geothermal plants in 2021: the 45 MW Unit II Sorik Marapi Geothermal Power Plant on 28 July 2021 and the 98.4 MW Rantau Dedap Power plant on 26 December 2021.

This article is written by Jamin Djuang – Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training – based on information from various sources.

Oil and Gas Activities in Indonesia in First Half of 2021

SSV Catarina drilled 5 Merakes development wells and the successful Maha-2 exploration well in ENI’s West Ganal block. Photo courtesy of Akhmad Syafrial.

The upstream oil and gas operators in Indonesia contributed 6.67 billion USD of revenue for the government of Indonesia in the first half of 2021. This amount is 91.7% of the full-year Indonesian government revenue target from E&P activities in 2021.

Mr. Dwi Soetjipto, the head of SKK Migas, is thankful that the 2021 first-half revenue contribution was better than expected in a meet-the-press event on 16 July 2021.

Here are the results from the oil and gas exploration and production activities in Indonesia in the first half of 2021 according to SKK Migas.

Oil Lifting Costs

The oil industry managed to lower the oil and gas production cost in 2021. The average production cost in the first half of this year is USD 12.17 per BOE (barrel of oil equivalent) whereas it was USD 13.71 per BOE in the same period last year. 

Oil and Gas Production

The average oil production in the first half of 2021 is 667,000 BOPD. This is below the 705,000 BOPD target set by the government for 2021.

The average gas production is 5430 MMSCFD in the first six months of 2021. This is below the 5638 MMSCFD targets of the government for 2021.

To make up for the shortfall of oil and gas production, SKK Migas is asking the oil operators to speed up their work programs.

The average combined oil and gas production in the first half of 2021 is 1.64 million BOEPD.

Proposed Incentives

To stimulate oil and gas exploration and production in Indonesia, SKK Migas is pushing for government approval on several incentives.         

The three incentives that are currently being proposed are:

  1. Providing a certain type of tax holiday to all oil and gas operators
  2. Reducing the processing fees charged by the Badak LNG plant to US$0.22 per MMBTU.
  3. Lowering tax paid by companies who provide certain types of goods and services to oil companies.

Completed Oil and Gas Projects in Indonesia

Seven upstream oil and gas projects out of the 12 targeted for 2021 have been completed in the first half of this year, according to SKK Migas.

These 1.46 billion USD projects contributed 9850 BOPD of new oil and 475 MMSCFD of gas.

Here are the 7 completed projects:
1. First phase production from Belato-2 oil field by Seleraya Merangin Dua in South Sumatera

2. EOR in Jirak Field by Pertamina EP in South Sumatera

3. Development of KLD gas field by Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ

4. Gas Supply to the Balikpapan refinery from Bontang by Pertamina Hulu Mahakam

5. West Pangkah field development by Saka Indonesia Pangkah Ltd

6. Merakes gas field development in East Sepinggan block by ENI

7. Gas supply from South Jambi B block to PLN Jambi by Jindi South Jambi B.

The Jambaran Tiung Biru Project

SKK Migas is working closely with Pertamina EP Cepu on the development of the significant Jambaran Tiung Biru project. This gas field development project in East Java is categorized as a national strategic project.

The Jambaran Tiung Biru project is more than 90% complete and gas production is expected to come on stream in the fourth quarter of 2021.

Plans of Field Development

SKK Migas approved 14 plans of field development (POD) that will potentially increase the oil and gas reserves by 131.2 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).

Exploration Drilling and Discoveries

Oil operators completed seven exploration wells with the following results:

  • Gas discovery in two wells: Maha-02 and Fanny-02
  • Oil discovery in two wells: Hidayah-01 and MSDE-01A
  • Three dry wells: Barakuda-1x, NSD-1 ExpTail and Plajawan Dalam.

The P50 reserves from Well Hidayah-01 are 87 MMBOE. The P50 combined reserves from wells Maha-02, Fanny-02, and MSDE-01A are 154 MMBOE.

P50 reserves are oil and gas reserves that have a 50% or greater probability of being recovered from a petroleum asset.

Drilling, Workovers, and Seismic Survey Activities

  • Number of development wells drilled – 186
  • Number of exploration wells drilled – 13
  • Number of workovers – 309
  • Number of well services – 11307
  • 2D seismic survey completed – 1917 Km
  • 3D seismic survey completed – 673 Km2

This article is adapted by Jamin Djuang based on the information provided by SKK Migas. He is the Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training.

The Amazing Chevron Pacific Indonesia

Welcome sign board at Caltex Rumbai camp entrance. Photo by Sasmito Adibowo.

After 97 years in Indonesia and producing more than 12 billion barrels of oil from the jungle in central Sumatera, Chevron Pacific Indonesia finally hands over its vast operation in the Rokan block to Pertamina Hulu Rokan on 8th August 2021.

The amazing story of Chevron Pacific Indonesia began in 1924 when Standard Oil of California (Socal), sent its exploration team to Indonesia to assess the oil potential in the basin in central Sumatera.

After the initial exploration expedition, Standard Oil of California set up the Dutch registered company, NV Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (NPPM), in June 1930 so it could conduct business in Indonesia, which was under the control of the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) at that time.

In 1936 NPPM became CALTEX when Socal and Texaco (Texas Oil Company) jointly formed a company called California Texas Petroleum Corporation to expand their operation in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand.

For most of the history of Chevron Pacific Indonesia, the company was known as Caltex or CPI (Caltex Pacific Indonesia). For this reason, the name Caltex or CPI is used frequently in this article to describe the activities and achievements of Chevron Pacific Indonesia. 

The achievements of Caltex in Indonesia are awesome. Here are some of them:

  • It discovered two giant oil fields in Central Sumatera – The Duri and the Minas field.
  • It also discovered more than 100 oil and gas fields in the Rokan block and several other blocks.
  • It is the longest surviving oil company that began its operation in Indonesia as a Dutch company.
  • It is the biggest oil producer in Indonesia of all time. It produced more than 12 billion barrels of oil in Sumatera and its daily production reached 1000,000 BOPD at its peak.
  • It operated the famous and successful Duri steam flood.
  • Rokan block is the largest oil concession block in Indonesia.
  • It drilled a total of 16023 wells in the four blocks it operated: The Rokan block, the CPP block (Coastal Plain Pekanbaru), the Siak block and the MFK block (Mountain Front Kuantan).

MILESTONES OF CHEVRON PACIFIC INDONESIA

As the 8th of August 2021 marks the end of Chevron Pacific Indonesia, here are the key milestones of Caltex Pacific Indonesia’s operations in Indonesia.  

1924

Standard Oil of California sent a team of geologists to Indonesia in March 1924 to survey the oil potential in Central Sumatera.        

1930

Chevron registered the company Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (NPPM) in 1930 so it could operate in Indonesia which was under the rule of the Netherlands East Indies.

1936

Chevron and Texaco (Texas Oil Company) jointly formed California Texas Petroleum Corporation (Caltex) in 1936 to market its oil products in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand.

In Indonesia, NPPM became Caltex Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (CPPM).

Caltex then received the right to explore and produce oil in an area in central Sumatera from the Netherlands East Indies. The area is now known as the Rokan block.    

1940

Caltex made its first discovery in Indonesia when it discovered oil in the Sebanga field in Riau in August 1040.

1941

Caltex discovered the giant oil field Duri in 1941. Duri has the largest oil deposit in Southeast Asia at that time.

1944

Caltex discovered another giant oil field, the Minas field, in December 1944.

1945

Indonesia declared its independence in 1945. This is the event that changed the ways how oil companies operated in Indonesia.

1951

PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, commonly referred to as CPI, was established in 1951 as an Indonesian company and was awarded the right from the government of Indonesia to continue to operate the Rokan block under a work contract scheme.

1952

Oil production from the Minas field started in April 1952 and was exported from Parawan and Pakning. The initial oil production from the Minas field was 15,000 BOPD.

1954

The Duri field started to produce oil in February 1954.

1955

Caltex discovered the Bekasap field in September 1955.

1958

Caltex built the first road that connected Pekanbaru and Dumai. It was also the first road that linked the east and west coasts of the island of Sumatra.

Caltex completed the Dumai oil export terminal in July 1958. At the same time, Caltex also completed the construction of oil pipelines from Duri to Dumai.

1959

Minas crude was exported from the Dumai terminal beginning in January 1959.

1963

PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia appointed Julius Tahija, the first native Indonesian as its president in 1963. 

1965

Oil production from the Bekasap field began in June 1965.

Oil production from the Duri field during the primary recovery phase peaked at 65,000 BOPD in 1965.

1966

The Pematang field came online in July 1966 and the Pungut field in August 1966.

1967

Caltex cumulative oil production reached 1000,000,000 barrels in August 1967.

Caltex constructed an extensive pipeline and road networks to connect major fields such as Bangko, Bekasap, Pematang, Petani, and Kotabatak. These fields significantly increased its oil production output.

1969

The cumulative oil production from the Minas field reached 1000,000,000 barrels in May 1969.

1973

The Petapahan field began producing oil in January 1973.

Daily oil production of Caltex reached 1000,000 BOPD for the first time in May 1973.

1975

Caltex started the Duri steam flood pilot project.

1977

CPI completed the construction of the 350-meter long bridge over the Siak river connecting the city of Pekanbaru to Rumbai, and former President Soeharto inaugurated the bridge in April 1977. Rumbai is the area where the main office and housing complex of Caltex are located.

1980

Caltex completed its first oil Gathering Station under the Duri steam flood project. More gathering stations were later added as the Duri steam flood expanded.  

1983

Caltex completed its main office building in Rumbai.

1990

The late former President Soeharto inaugurated the Duri Steam Flood on 3 March 1990.

1992

Caltex Pacific Indonesia obtained a 20-year extension to its production sharing agreement with Indonesia to operate the Rokan block until 2021.

1995

Caltex implemented the Strategic Business Unit management system in 1995.

1997

Caltex completed the Dumai Main Office in May 1997.

2000

Chevron acquired Texaco in October 2000.

2002

Caltex handed over the Coastal Pekanbaru Plain (CPP) block which it had acquired in 1971 to PT Bumi Siak Pusako – Pertamina Hulu on 18 August 2002.

The new operator is a joint operation body between PT Bumi Siak Pusako (BSP) which is owned by the local government in Riau and Pertamina. 

2005

With the acquisition of Texaco by Chevron, Caltex Pacific Indonesia was renamed Chevron Pacific Indonesia in September 2005.

Chevron Pacific Indonesia came under the umbrella of Chevron IndoAsia Business Unit in 2005 along with Chevron Indonesia Company (ex-Unocal Indonesia Company), Chevron Makassar (the Makassar Deepwater Project), Chevron Geothermal Indonesia (Ex-Unocal geothermal projects in Darajat and Salak), Mandau Cipta Tenaga Nusantara, and Chevron Geothermal Philippines.  

2008

Chevron Pacific Indonesia marked the 11th billion barrels of oil produced from its Sumatra operation in 2008.

2010

Chevron Pacific Indonesia handed over the operatorship of the Langgak block to PT Sarana Pembangunan Riau in January 2010.

2018

With the help of the successful steam flood, the Duri field’s cumulative oil production reached 2.6 billion barrels in 2018.

Total cumulative oil production of CPI from all fields reached 13 billion barrels.

2021

Chevron Pacific Indonesia hands over the prolific Rokan block to Pertamina Hulu Rokan on 8 August 2021. Rokan block with an area of 6220 KM2 is the largest oil concession block in Indonesia. Stretching over five “kabupaten” (regencies) in central Sumatera it produced oil from more than 12000 wells located in 80 fields. It also operates one of the biggest and most successful steam floods in the world.

The top ten producing oil fields in the Rokan block are Minas, Duri, Bangko, Bekasap, Balam South, Kotabatak, Petani, Pematang, Petapahan, and Pager.

Although the total oil production from the Rokan block has come down to 160,000 barrels per day, it is still a very significant oil asset for Indonesia as it is contributing 24% of the country’s total oil production according to SKK Migas.

Presidents of Caltex Pacific Indonesia Since 1963

One of the keys to success of CPI is its adaptability. The company took initiatives to work well with both the central government of Indonesia and the local government and the communities.

Caltex Pacific Indonesia decided in 1963 to Indonesianize the company. It appointed Mr. Julius Tahija as the first native Indonesian as the company president. All its subsequent presidents have been Indonesians.

Here are the past presidents of Chevron Pacific Indonesia since 1963:

1. Julius Tahija, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1963 – 1977)

2. Haroen Al Rasjid, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1977 – 1993)

3. Baihaki Hamid Hakim, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1993-1999)

4. Humayunbosha, President of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1999-2004),

5. W. Yudiana Ardiwinata, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia (2004-2005),

6. Suwito Anggoro, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director Indonesia Business Unit (2005-2010),

7. Abdul Hamid Batubara, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director Indonesia Business Unit (2010-2014),

8.Albert B. M. Simanjuntak, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director IBU (2014-2021),

Epilog

Although the signboard with a Caltex logo will no longer be seen at the entrance of Rumbai camp, the company will continue to be remembered by people who have worked for the company and the people who have lived in the surrounding communities.

Caltex will be remembered not just for what it did in the oil fields, but it will also be remembered for what it did for the surrounding people and communities.

Here are some of the most notable legacy of Caltex:

  1. Building the first state senior high school (SMAN-1) in Pekanbaru in 1957
  2. Completion of the 350 meter-long bridge over the Siak River in 1977.
  3. Establishing the polytechnic college – Politeknik Caltex Riau in 2001.

This article is written by Jamin Djuang. He had been in Rumbai and Duri conducting training for Caltex and traveled the private road connecting Rumbai and Duri. He enjoyed eating in the Caltex cafeteria in Rumbai where it served both delicious Indonesian and western food.

Some of the information in this article was provided by Mr. Elthaf who worked for CPI in Minas field for 36 years.

How to Measure the ROI in Training

Training and development have become ever more important as companies face significant skills gaps during this rapidly changing business environment.

How will you know if your training meets the skills gaps and generates the desired impacts to make your company successful?

The original model of training evaluation developed by Raymond Katzell suggested that training should be evaluated in four steps:

Step 1: Measure reaction.

Step 2: Measure learning.

Step 3: Measure behavior.

Step 4: Measure results.

This is the model that Kirkpatrick promoted for many years. Dr. Jack Phillips, the author or editor of more than 100 books, went further to define the methodology and add another step. He, with many other practitioners, began to call these levels. These levels of evaluation are

Level 1 – At level one, the results of training are assessed based on participants’ reactions to the training and the action plan submitted by the participants. This is commonly done immediately after the training.

Level 2 – At level two, the results of training are assessed by how much learning is acquired by participants. This is done by conducting some form of testing.

Level 3 – At level three, the training evaluator will find out if the acquired skills, knowledge, or attitude (SKA) are applied and implemented by the trainees. This is usually done several weeks or months after training.

Level 4 – At level four, evaluators assess the impact, both tangible and intangible, of the training several weeks or months after the training. Examples of tangible impacts are cost savings, higher productivity, better quality, sales increase, etc. Examples of intangible benefits are attitude improvement, better communication, etc.

Level 5 – At level five, evaluators measure the return on investment of training or any other people development program.

Phillips went on to develop process standards and pushed the methodology through the ROI Certification process. Today, over two-thirds of the Fortune 500 companies use this methodology, 26 governments around the world, many NGOs, non-profits, approximately 300 health care organizations, and 150 universities. It is now the most used evaluation system in the world.

ROI is an important measure that is used to show the efficient use of funds. Management is interested in ROI as it compares the actual monetary benefits of the training program relative to the total costs of the training.

STEPS TO MEASURE THE ROI

Here are the steps to measure the ROI of a training program.

  1. Design the training based on business needs.
  2. Plan the training to be evaluated at all levels.
  3. Design the training such the skills, knowledge, or attitude taught can be applied and implemented on the job.
  4. Collect Level 1 data – reactions and action plans of trainees- at the end of training.
  5. Collect Level 2 data – learning – at the end of training.
  6. Collect Level 3 data – application and implementation – several weeks or months after training.
  7. Collect Level 4 data – Both the tangible business impacts and the intangible impacts – several weeks or months after training.
  8. Isolate the effect of the program by identifying other factors that may impact the outcomes of the program. This is a critical aspect in producing credible ROI results.
  9. Convert Level 4 data into monetary values of the training benefits.
  10. Annualize the monetary values to determine the monetary benefit of the training over 12 months.
  11. Collect data on the total costs of training.
  12. Calculate the ROI using this formula.  ROI = (Benefits – Costs)/Costs x 100%

THE BENEFITS OF MEASURING ROI

As the need for skill-building is increasing and the training budget is getting bigger, it is important to know whether you are getting positive values from your investment in training.

When you have the ROI data to prove to management the value of your training, you will get more supports for the training programs you plan conduct in the future.

Dr. Jack J. Phillips is the pioneer in measuring the ROI in training. Over the past 20 years, Dr. Jack Phillips and Dr. Patti Phillips have trained and certified thousands of training professionals on the ROI Methodology. More than two-thirds of the Fortune 500 companies are applying this methodology in the training they conduct.  

How about your organization? Does your management ask you to measure the ROI or financial benefits of your training programs? Have you done this before? Do you have the competency and confidence to do it?

Finally, it is important the ROI result you come out with is correct and credible. As the implementation in each step of the measuring process can be quite involved, you need to fully understand the whole process of ROI measurement.

Top Five Refineries in Indonesia

The Balikpapan refinery complex. Photo courtesy of Chaz Tumbelaka.

Indonesia currently has six oil refineries and they are all operated by Pertamina, the national oil company of Indonesia.

Here are the top five refineries in Indonesia:

  • Dumai Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan II Dumai
  • Plaju Refinery, officially known as  Unit Pengolahan III Plaju
  • Cilacap Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan IV Cilacap
  • Balikpapan Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan V Balikpapan
  • Balongan Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan VI Balongan

Besides these five refineries, Pertamina operates a small 10,000 BOPD Kasim refinery in Sorong, West Papua.

With a total capacity to process 1,046,700 barrels of crude oil per day, all refineries in Indonesia are currently supplying about 50% of the domestic fuel needs.

In 2019, Indonesia imported 24.7 billion liters of fuel.

To meet its domestic fuel needs, Indonesia intends to produce all the fuels it needs by 2026. It hopes to increase the crude processing capacity to two million barrels per day in 2025 under the ambitious 17 billion dollar Refinery Development Master Plan (RDMP).

Based on the RDMP, the top five refineries will be upgraded to increase their capabilities and capacity. Currently, Pertamina is expanding and upgrading the Cilacap and Balikpapan refineries.

Pertamina also has a plan to build two new refineries: one in Tuban in East Java and one in Bontang in East Kalimantan.

The project to construct the 300,000 barrels of crude oil per day Tuban refinery is currently underway. It is expected to complete in 2026.

Here are the details of the top five refineries.

DUMAI REFINERY

Dumai refinery started operating in 1971 and it is located in Dumai in Sumatera.

The Dumai refinery is designed with a capacity to process 170,000 barrels of crude oil and it supplies Sumatera with fuels such as gasoline, aviation fuel, diesel fuel, kerosene, solvent, green coke, and LPG.

This refinery is unique as it produces the power it needs using the natural gas produced from the surrounding gas fields namely the Grissik field operated by ConocoPhillips, the fields in the Bentu block operated by Mega Energi Persada (PT EMP), and the Jambi Merang gas fields operated by Pertamina Hulu Energi Jambi Merang (PHE Jambi Merang).

By using the natural gas produced from these fields, the Dumai refinery can reduce its fuel cost by 40%.

PLAJU REFINERY

The Plaju refinery and petrochemical complex comprises two old refineries located in the Palembang area in South Sumatera: one in Plaju and another one in Sungei Gerong.

The refinery in Plaju is the oldest existing refinery in Indonesia. It was built in 1904 by BPM (Batavia Petroleum Maatschappy), a predecessor of Shell. Pertamina acquired this refinery from BPM in 1949.

The refinery at Sungei Gerong was built by SVPM (Standard Vacuum Petroleum Maatschappij) 1926. Pertamina acquired this refinery from Stanvac in 1970.

Pertamina integrated these two refineries in 1972 by constructing connecting pipelines and officially called them Unit Pengolahan III Plaju.

The integrated Plaju refinery and petrochemical complex has a combined refining capacity of 118,000 barrels per day. It processes crude oil and intermediate products to produce gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, the B20 biodiesel fuel, aviation fuel, and fuel oil.  

The types of gasoline it produces include the Premium, Pertalite, Pertamax, and Pertamax Racing.

The Plaju refinery also produces petrochemicals such as Polypropylene and PTA.

According to Pertamina, the Plaju refinery and petrochemical complex will see a new stand-alone 20,000 barrels per day “Green Refinery” in 2024 taking advantage of the locally produced crude palm oil (CPO). The new unit will produce green diesel fuel, green aviation fuel, green naphtha and green LPG.

CILACAP REFINERY

The Cilacap refinery is the largest and most integrated refinery and petrochemical complex in Indonesia. With its current refining capacity of 348,000 barrels of crude oil per day, it produces 34% of the total fuel production in Indonesia.

The Cilacap refinery was initially completed in 1976 with a capacity of processing 100,000 barrels of crude oil per day. However, as a strategic refinery due to its location being in Central Java, it has been revamped and expanded several times. 

Today, this Pertamina Unit IV refinery and petrochemical complex consists of three units:

  • Oil Refining Unit #1
  • Oil Refining Unit #2
  • Paraxylene Unit

Oil Refining Unit #1 was completed in 1976 with a capacity of processing 100,000 barrels of oil per day and it was designed to specifically handle crude oil from the Middle East.

This refining unit produces gasoline, lube oil, and asphalt. It underwent debottlenecking in 1998 to increase its refining capacity to 118,000 BOPD.

To meet the increasing demand for fuel, Oil Refining Unit #2 was completed in 1983 with a capacity of 200,000 BOPD. Its capacity was later increased to 230,000 BOPD in 1998.

This second unit is designed to handle both crude oil from the Middle East and Indonesia.

The Paraxylene Unit, completed in 1990, produces petrochemicals such as paraxylene, benzene, raffinate, and heavy aromatic. Some of these products are shipped to the Plaju refinery for further processing.

BALIKPAPAN REFINERY

The famous Balikpapan refinery was completed in 1922 by BPM (Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij), the predecessor of Royal Dutch Shell.  It was built to process the crude oil that BPM had discovered in Balikpapan in East Kalimantan.

The refinery was heavily damaged twice during World War II and subsequently restored. It was later acquired by  Pertamina from BPM in 1949.

The refinery has been expanded and upgraded several times to meet the increasing demand for fuel in the eastern part of Indonesia.

The Balikpapan refinery is the second-largest refinery in Indonesia. At its current crude oil processing capacity of 260,000 barrels, it processes 25% of the total crude oil intake and supplies about 15% of the fuel needs in Indonesia.  

Under the RMDP refinery expansion plan, it is set to become even bigger. It is currently undergoing a massive 5 billion dollar expansion which will increase its processing capacity from 260,000 barrels per day to 360,000 barrels per day.  

Besides increasing its processing capacity, the expansion project is also aimed to improve its crude flexibility and product quality. The refinery will have the capability to produce high-quality Euro V standard fuels.

The Balikpapan refinery expansion includes:

  • A residual fluid catalytic cracker (RFCC) unit with a design capacity of 90,000 barrels per stream per day (BPSD)
  • An LPG sulfur removal unit,
  • A propylene recovery unit
  • An 80,000 BPSD middle distillate hydrotreater.

The project will also upgrade the existing vacuum distillation unit (VDU), crude distillation unit (CDU), hydrocracker unit (HCU), and LPG recovery units to increase the production of Euro V gasoline, diesel fuel, and LPG by 100,000 BPD, 30,000 BPD and 930 tons respectively per day.

Included in the project is the expansion of the crude oil receiving capacity by adding:

  • A single-point mooring system and a pipeline end manifold, capable of handling crude carriers with 320,000 deadweight tonnage (DWT).
  • A 20-inch onshore pipeline from Lawe-Lawe terminal to Panajam terminal.
  • A 52-inch subsea pipeline from the Panajam terminal to the refinery.
  • Two new one-million barrel capacity crude oil storage tanks.

Balongan Refinery

Located in Indramayu, West Java, the Balongan refinery was completed in 1994. It was revamped in 2003 to increase its processing capacity to 130,000 barrels of crude oil per day.

The Balongan refinery and petrochemical complex is designed to process crude oil from the Duri and Minas fields.

It produces a variety of fuels such as Premium, Pertamax, Pertamax Plus, diesel fuel, kerosene, and LPG. It also produces petrochemicals such as propylene.

This Unit VI refinery of Pertamina is a strategic and vital refinery to Indonesia as it supplies the fuel needs of the nation’s capital city of Jakarta and West Java.

The Balongan refinery prides itself for being the refinery that applies eco-friendly technology and that processes residue into high-quality products.

The refinery experienced a fire incident on 29th March 2021. Four of its storage tanks caught fire.

Kasim Refinery

The 10,000 BPD Kasim refinery is the newest but the smallest refinery of Pertamina.

Located in Sorong in West Papua, Kasim refinery was completed in 1997 to meet the needs for fuels in the most eastern part of Indonesia. It takes advantage of processing the crude oil produced from the nearby fields of Walio and Salawati.


This Pertamina Unit VII refinery is currently operating below its design capacity of 10,000 BOPD. This is due to the declining oil production from the two oil fields.

To make the plant economical to operate, Pertamina will need to increase the crude supply by bringing in crude oil via oil tankers. To do so, it will need to construct four 110,000 barrel storage tanks.

Currently, the Kasim refinery is supplying less than 15% of the fuel needed in Papua and Maluku. It is hoped that Kasim can process 50,000 BOPD in the future.  

This article is adapted by Jamin Djuang from information published by Pertamina and other sources. He is the Chief Training Officer of LDI Training.

Pertamina’s Upstream Assets and Organization

The Sepinggan Field of Pertamina in East Kalimantan- Photo courtesy of Heru Suparto

PT Pertamina (Persero) is the national oil company of Indonesia, and also the largest company in Indonesia. It is the parent holding company of all the many Pertamina subsidiary companies.

Pertamina is big. As an integrated oil company, Pertamina involves in oil and gas exploration and production, refining and petrochemicals, gas distribution through pipelines, distribution of fuels, and lube oil to every corner of the land. It is also a producer of renewable energy such as geothermal energy.

On the upstream side, Pertamina owns many oil fields and work areas and has vast and expansive oil exploration and production operations in Indonesia. It also has oil and gas interests in several other countries.

Pertamina’s upstream oil and gas interests are under the wings of PT Pertamina Hulu Energi (PHE). It is the sub-holding company of PT Pertamina (Persero) in charge of its entire upstream oil and gas assets and operations in Indonesia and overseas.

The current CEO of PT Pertamina Hulu Energi is Budiman Parhusip.

Pertamina has come a long way. Its assets include oil and gas assets that Pertamina itself develops, assets it acquired from BPM (Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij), assets it acquired from international companies upon the expiry of their production sharing contracts, and its oil and gas assets overseas.

Pertamina grew significantly in 2021 as it acquired the huge and prolific Rokan block from Chevron in Sumatera.

As Pertamina’s oil fields are located in many islands of Indonesia covering a vast area of more than 113,000 Km2, its assets and operations are divided into five regions. Each region is further divided into zones.

Here are the five regions including the zones under each region and their leadership teams.

REGION 1- Sumatera

Pertamina’s assets in Sumatera fall under Region 1 and they are managed under PT Pertamina Hulu Rokan (PHR).

Consisting of four zones, Pertamina Hulu Rokan manages the following assets:

  • In Zone 1 – North Sumatera Offshore (NSO), North Sumatera Basin (NSB), Rantau, Pangkalan Susu, West Glagah Kambuna, Siak, Kampar, Lirik, Jambi, Jambi Merang, Jabung
  • In Zone 2 – North Rokan (Rokan Utara)
  • In Zone 3 – South Rokan (Rokan Selatan)
  • In Zone 4 – Ogan Komering, Raja Tempirai, Ramba, Corridor, Prabumulih, Limau, Pendopo, Adera 

Here is the current leadership team stewarding Pertamina’s exploration and production activities in Region 1.

  • Novy Hendri – VP Exploration
  • Tri Sasongko – VP Development and Drilling
  • Junizar Harman – VP Operation and Production
  • Saptiadi Nugroho – VP Business Support
  • Ani Surakhman – General Manager of Zone 1
  • Ahmad Miftah – General Manager of Zone 4

REGION 2 – Java and Natuna

Region 2 covers Pertamina upstream activities in West Java and the Natuna Sea, and they are managed under PT Pertamina Eksplorasi dan Produksi (PEP).

Here are the zones in Region 2 and the assets under each zone.

  • Zone 5 – Offshore North West Java (PHE ONWJ), Abar, Anggursi
  • Zone 6 – Offshore South East Sumatera (PHE OSES)
  • Zone 7 – Tambun, Subang, Jatibarang, East Natuna, The Natuna Sea Block A

Here is the new leadership team of Region 2.

  • Muharram Jaya – VP Exploration
  • Merry Luciawaty – VP Development and Drilling
  • Wisnu Hindadari – VP Operation and Productions
  • Bongbongan Tampubolon – VP Business Support
  • Achmad Agus Miftakhurrohman – General Manager of Zone 5
  • Cosmas Supriatna – General Manager of Zone 6
  • Astri Pujianto – General Manager of Zone 7

REGION 3 – Kalimantan

Region 3 assets and operations are located in Kalimantan, and PT Pertamina Hulu Indonesia (PHI) is the operating holding company of Pertamina in Region 3.

Here are the zones in Region 3 and the assets in each zone:

  • Zone 8 – Pertamina Hulu Mahakam (PHM), Pertamina West Ganal (PHWG), East Sepinggan
  • Zone 9 – Pertamina Hulu Sanga Sanga (PHSS), Sangata, Maratua, Tanjung
  • Zone 10 – Pertamina Hulu Kalimantan Timur (PHKT), Bunyu, Tarakan, Nunukan, East Ambalat, Simenggaris, Ambalat, Bukat

Here is the leadership team supervising Pertamina’s exploration and production activities in Region 3.

  • Bayu Giriansyah – VP Exploration
  • Arief Prasetyo Handoyo – VP Development and Drilling
  • Rachmad Wibowo – VP Production
  • Satya Nugraha – VP Business Support
  • Agus Amperianto – General Manager of Zone 8 
  • Andri Haribowo – General manager of Zone 9
  • Raam Krisna – General Manager of Zone 10

REGION 4 – East Java and Eastern Part of Indonesia

Pertamina’s oil and assets located in the eastern part of Indonesia and East Java are under Region 4.

PT Pertamina Eksplorasi dan Produksi Cepu (PEPC) is the operation holding company in charge of Region 4.

Here are the zones in Region 4 and their assets:

  • Zone 11 – Alas Dara Kemuning (PEPC ADK), Cepu, West Madura Offshore (PHE WMO), Randugunting, Sukowati, Poleng, Tuban East Java
  • Zone 12 – Jambaran Tiung Biru (JTB), Banyu Urip
  • Zone 13 – Donggi Matindok, Senoro Tolidi, Makassar Strait
  • Zone 14 – Papua, Salawati, Kepala Burung, Babar Selaru, Semai

Here is the current leadership team of Region 4.

  • Ali Sundja – VP Development and Drilling
  • Muhamad Arifin – VP Operation and Production
  • Fransiono Lazarus – VP Business Support
  • Dedy Syam – General Manager of Zone 11
  • Iman Nur Akbar – General Manager of Zone 13
  • Djudjuwanto General Manager of Zona 14

REGION 5 – International   

Pertamina also has oil and gas interests in several countries outside Indonesia. Its international E&P operations and assets fall under Region 5 and they are under the management of PT Pertamina International Eksplorasi dan Produksi (PIEP).

Here are the zones of Region 5 and their locations:

  • Zone 15 – Algeria
  • Zone 16 – Iraq
  • Zone 17 – Malaysia  

Here is the current leadership team supervising Pertamina’s international exploration and production activities.

  • Fuji Koesumadewi – VP Exploration
  • Yosi Hiroshiadi – VP Development and Drilling 
  • Charles P. Sialagan – VP Operation and Production
  • Ria Noveria – VP Business Support
  • Edwil Suzandi – Country Manager in Algeria

The total daily oil and gas production of Pertamina in 2021 is 897,000 BOEPD according to Budiman Parhusip, CEO of PT Pertamina Hulu Energi.

Here is the breakdown of the oil and gas production in 2021.

The total daily oil production is 445,000 BOPD. This comprises 349,000 BOPD from Indonesia and 96,000 BOPD from operations outside of Indonesia.

Daily total gas production is 2615 MMSCFD. This comprises 2290 MMSCFD from Indonesia and 325 MMSCFD from operations outside of Indonesia. 

Pertamina drilled 12 exploration and 350 development wells in 2021.

This article is adapted by Jamin Djuang – Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training – from information published by Pertamina and various other sources.

Weekly Oil Industry Barometers – 5 March 2021

This has been a very surprising and great week for the oil industry.

The OPEC+ members – Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and their Russia-led allies – held their meeting this week and decided not to increase oil production in April. As a result, oil prices and share prices of all major oil companies soared this week ending on 5 March 2021.

The price of Brent crude oil surged to $69.36 per barrel while the WTI crude oil closed higher also at $66.28 this week.

STOCK PRICES OF MAJOR OIL COMPANIES

All oil major companies saw huge gains in their stock prices this week.

Here are their closing prices and the weekly changes.

CHEVRON – $109.00 up 9%

EXXONMOBIL – $60.93 up 12.1%

CONOCOPHILLIPS – $58.34 up 12.2%

BP – $26.77 up 9.7%

ROYAL DUTCH SHELL – 18.13 EUR up 7.3%

TOTAL – 40.97 EUR up 6.7%

ENI – 10.06 EUR up 6.1%

RIG COUNTS

The weekly US rig count increased to 403. The oil companies in the US added one rig last week, according to Baker Hughes Rig Counts.

The total global rig count continues its monthly gain. It increased by 87 rigs in the month of February 2021 to 1270. The total global rig count in January was 1183. 

This weekly report is adapted by LDI Training from various sources of information.

March 6, 2021

Oil and Gas Activities in Indonesia in 2020

The upstream oil and gas industry of Indonesia invested 10.21 billion US dollars and performed well in 2020 according to SKK Migas, the special task force in charge of upstream oil and gas activities of oil companies in Indonesia.

The oil and gas industry of Indonesia successfully met and even exceeded some of the 2020 targets that were set by the Indonesian government in the following key areas:

  1. Reserve Replacement ratio (RRR).
  2. Oil lifting
  3. Controlling the cost recovery
  4. Revenue intake by the government
  5. Completion of oil and gas projects

RESERVE REPLACEMENT RATIO

The reserve replacement ratio in 2020 is 101.6%. The oil industry added 705 MMBOE of reserve in 2020.  

OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION

The average daily oil lifting in 2020 is 706,000 BOPD. This exceeded the government target of 705,000 BOPD.

However, daily gas production in 2020 is 5461 MMSCFD. This is below the government target of 5556 MMSCFD.

COST RECOVERY

The amount of cost recovery in 2020 is US$ 8.12 billion which is in line with the government expectations.

OIL REVENUE TO GOVERNMENT

The oil industry contributed US$ 8.4 billion of revenues to the Indonesian government. This amount is 41% higher than the expected amount of US$5.86 billion.

COMPLETION OF EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION PROJECTS

Fifteen oil and gas projects went on stream in 2020. These new projects added 9182 barrels of oil per day and 111 million SCF of gas per day.

3199 Km of 2D seismic and 1251 Km2 of 3D seismic surveys were completed in 2020.

SKK Migas was active and running in 2020 to keep the oil and gas exploration and production activities at a high level. Here are some of the key actions that SKK Migas undertook in 2020: 

  • SKK Migas signed twenty-four PSC side letters and sixty-one letters of agreement (LoA).
  • The government reduced the prices of gas sold to domestic companies to stimulate economic growth.
  • Allowing oil and gas operators to delay topping up the Abandonment and Site Restoration fund.
  • Eliminating the costs to oil operators of using government assets in their exploration and production activities.
  • Allowing oil companies to accelerate asset appreciation.
  • SKK Migas and Chevron Pacific Indonesia signed the Heads of Agreement to ensure the continuity of a high level of activities such as well drilling and production optimization in the Rokan Block during the final phase of the PSC contract. Chevron will hand over the operatorship of The Rokan block to Pertamina when its production sharing contract expires in August 2021.
  • SKK Migas approved the Plan of Development (POD) submitted by Repsol for the development of the huge Kaliberau gas field having 445 billion SCF of gas reserve in the Sakakemang block. The total investment in this project is estimated at 359 million US dollars.

PERFORMANCE OF THE OIL AND GAS OPERATORS IN 2020

Here are the top nine oil and gas operators who exceeded their oil production targets in 2020.

  • Chevron Pacific Indonesia
  • Pertamina Hulu Mahakam
  • Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ  
  • Pertamina Hulu Energi OSES
  • Petrochina International Jabung
  • Medco E & P Natuna
  • Pertamina Hulu Sanga Sanga
  • Medco E&P Rimau
  • JOB Pertamina – Medco Tomori Sulawesi

Here are the top nine oil and gas operators who exceeded their gas production targets in 2020.

  • BP Berau
  • Pertamina Hulu Mahakam
  • Eni Muara Bakau BV
  • JOB Pertamina – Medco Tomori Sulawesi
  • Premier Oil Indonesia
  • Petrochina International Jabung
  • Medco E & P Natuna
  • Kangean Energi Indonesia
  • Pearl Oil (Sebuku)

EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION TARGETS FOR 2021

Being optimistic that Indonesia will meet the target of 1 million BOPD and 12 BSCFD of gas by 2030, SKK Migas is committed to keeping oil and gas production high in 2021. Here are its ambitious targets for oil and gas activities in 2021:

  • Daily oil production – 705,000 BOPD. This is the same target as in 2020.
  • The number of exploration wells – 43. This is a significant increase from 28, the actual number of exploration wells drilled in 2020.
  • The number of development wells – 616. This target is much higher compared with the 240 development wells drilled in 2020.
  • Number of workovers – 615
  • Number of well services – 26,431
  • 2-D seismic survey – 3569 Km
  • 3-D seismic survey – 1549 Km2

The Indonesian oil industry performed well in 2020. Mr. Dwi Soetjipto, the head of SKK Migas said: “The year 2020 was a difficult year for many oil operators due to the Covid 19 pandemic and the low oil prices. Nevertheless, the oil industry of Indonesia was able to meet several targets set by the government. Hopefully, this will help the country’s economy.”

This blog article is adapted from “Kinerja Hulu Migas Gemilang Sepanjang 2020” published by SKK Migas on 4 January 2021.

This article is adapted from SKK Migas news by Jamin Djuang – Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training.

Ten Largest Geothermal Plants in Indonesia

Geothermal wells at Muara Laboh

Indonesia is the second-largest geothermal energy producer in the world after the USA. The total installed power generating capacity from the active 16 geothermal power plants in Indonesia is 2276 MW at the end of 2021.

Indonesia is the biggest contributor to the increase of installed geothermal power in the world in 2021.

Indonesia added a total of 133 MW of capacity in 2021: 45 MW from Unit II Sorik Marapi Geothermal Power Plant on 28 July 2021 and 98.4 MW from the Rantau Dedap Power plant on 26 December 2021.

The country plans to add 108 MW of capacity in 2022.

Located right on the long stretch of the ring of fire, Indonesian islands are endowed with rich geothermal resources. The total potential geothermal resources of Indonesia are estimated at 28,000 MW.

Although the geothermal potential is huge, its utilization rate is under 8%.

Here are the top ten largest geothermal plants in Indonesia in 2021.

The Kamojang Geothermal Plant

Operating since 1982, the 235 MW Kamojang plant is the first geothermal power plant in Indonesia. Located in the Garut area in West Java, it has been operating for 38 years.

The Dutch spotted the Kamojang geothermal potential more than one hundred years ago and drilled several wells in the area. In 1926 it successfully drilled the first steam producing well in Kamojang, also the first in Indonesia.  

Later in I971, Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE) with cooperation from New Zealand began to develop the field followed by the construction of the Kamojang power plant, the first geothermal power plant in Indonesia.

The plant is operated by Pertamina Geothermal Energi.

The Salak Geothermal Power Plant

Producing 377 MW of power, the Salak plant is the largest geothermal power plant in Indonesia and is also one of the largest in the world.

Located at Gunung Salak in West Java, the Salak plant has been operating since 1994.

The Salak geothermal resources were initially explored and developed by Unocal. In 2005, the Salak geothermal assets were taken over by Chevron who eventually sold it to Star Energy in 2017. 

The Darajat Geothermal Plant

The 270 MW Darajat geothermal plant, located at Garut in West Java, started its commercial operation in 1994 and is one of the oldest geothermal power plants in Indonesia.

The Darajat geothermal assets were initially explored and developed by Amoseas. The assets were later taken over by Chevron who eventually sold it to a consortium led by Star Energy in 2017.

The Darajat resource has two special characteristics. First, it is one of only a few dry steam fields in the world.

Secondly, the Darajat wells are highly productive. While the worldwide average capacity of a geothermal well is 5 to 10 MW, a Darajat well can produce 40 MW of power.


The Sarulla Geothermal Plant

The Sarulla geothermal power plant, with 330 MW capacity, is the second-largest geothermal plant in Indonesia and is also one of the largest geothermal plants in the world.

The Sarulla geothermal resources, located in North Sumatera, were initially discovered by Unocal. Unocal conducted extensive exploration in the Sarulla geothermal working area from 1993 to 1998. It drilled a total of 13 deep wells and proved the existence of 330 MW of commercial geothermal reserves for 30 years.

However, due to the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the Unocal proposed power plant was not constructed until after the project was taken over by Sarulla Operation Limited (SOL).

Sarulla Operation Limited completed the power plant in 2016. The company is a consortium consisting of Medco Power Indonesia, Pertamina Geothermal Energy, INPEX, Ormat International, Itochu Corporation, and Kyushu Electric Power.  

The Muara Laboh Geothermal Plant

Completed in 2019, the 85 MW Muara Laboh geothermal plant is the newest plant among the ten largest geothermal power plants in Indonesia.

The Muara Laboh geothermal plant is located in West Sumatera and is operated by Supreme Energy Muara Laboh (SEML).

It took the company 12 years to complete the geothermal project at 587 million US dollars.

The operator of the project, PT Supreme Energy Muara Laboh (SEML), is a consortium consisting of PT Supreme Energy, ENGIE, and Sumitomo Corporation.

Having proven reserves of 200MW, the company is in negotiation with PLN, the national power company, to build a second power generation unit.

The Ulubelu Geothermal Plant

Operating since 2012 and located at Lampung in Sumatera, the 220 MW Ulubelu geothermal power plant is operated by Pertamina Geothermal Energy.

The combined 220 MW power comes from the four 55 MW power generation units.

The Lahendong Geothermal Plant

The 120 MW Lahendong geothermal plant is located in Tomohon in North Sulawesi. The Lahendong plant started to operate commercially in 2001 and Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE) is the operator.

Its combined 120 MW power is generated from the five 20 MW power generation units.

The Wayang Windu Geothermal Plant

Located in the Bandung area in West Java, the 227 MW Wayang Windu geothermal plant began its commercial operation in 1999.

Star Energy operates the Wayang Windu geothermal assets under a joint cooperation contract with Pertamina Geothermal Energi.

The Dieng Geothermal Plant

The 60 MW Dieng geothermal power plant started to operate in 1998. The Dieng plant is located in the Dieng area in Central Java and is operated by Geo Dipa Energi.

Geo Dipa Energi is currently working on the following projects in the Dieng work area:

  1. Adding a small 10 MW power plant.
  2. Developing a 55 MW Dieng-2 power plant (PLTP Dieng Unit 2)
  3. Developing a 55 MW Dieng-3 power plant (PLTP Dieng Unit 3)

The Patuha Geothermal Plant

The 55 MW Patuha geothermal plant located at the Ciwidey area in West Java has been in operation since 2014.

Geo Dipa Energi as the operator is committed to drill 12 new wells beginning in 2021 and construct a second 55 MW power plant. Its long-term plan is to increase the Patuha power generation capacity to 400 MW.

Other Geothermal Plants in Indonesia

Sixteen geothermal power plants are operating in Indonesia currently. Besides the above top ten largest plants, here are two other geothermal plants that are worth mentioning.

The Lumut Balai Geothermal Plant

The 55 MW Lumut Balai geothermal plant, located at Muara Enim in South Sumatera, started to operate commercially in 2019.

Pertamina Geothermal Energi operates the Lumut Balai assets and the company is finalizing the construction the second 55 MW power station. This Lumut Balai #2 Station will come online by the end of 2022.

The Sorik Marapi Geothermal Plant

The Sorik Marapi geothermal power plant located in Mandailing Natal in North Sumatera has a total installed capacity of 90 MW.

Its first 45 MW unit came online in 2019 and the second 45 MW unit was inaugurated on 28 July 2021.

The Sorik Marapi geothermal plant was developed by ORKA Energy and operated by PT Sorik Marapi Geothermal Power.

The company is constructing its third power station. This Sorik Marapi #3 55MW Station will come online in 2022.

The Rantau Dedap Geothermal Plant

The Rantau Dedap geothermal power plant, located in South Sumatera, is the latest geothermal power plant that came online in Indonesia in 2021. Currently, it consists of two power stations, Unit 1 and Unit 2 having a total installed capacity of 98.5 MW.

The power plant is operated by PT Supreme Energy Rantau Dedap (SERD), a consortium consisting of Supreme Energy, Marubeni, ENGIE, and Tohoku Electric Company.

Here are the timelines of the Rantau Dedap geothermal project:

2010 – The concession for the Rantau Dedap was awarded to Supreme Energy.

2011 – Geoscientific exploration began.

2014 – Exploration drilling began.

2015 – A total of 6 exploration wells were completed by 2015.

2016 – The company confirmed the 92 MW of proven reserve capacity.

2018 – Power plant construction began.

2021 – Completed the Unit 1 and Unit 2 power stations.  

The 49.25 MW Unit 1 station was successfully synchronized to PLN’s power grid on 5 October 2021. PLN – Perusahaan Listrik Negara – is the national electricity company of Indonesia.

The Rantau Dedap power plant began its commercial operation on 26 December 2021.

PT Supreme Energy Rantau Dedap plans to further develop the geothermal potential in the Rantau Dedap geothermal work area with a total development target of 240 MW.

Geothermal is Rising in Indonesia

The list of the top largest power plants in Indonesia will likely change in 2022 as several new power plants will be completed in near future.

The Indonesian government is very keen to develop its vast geothermal resources to increase the contribution of renewable energy in its energy mix. Its targets are to increase the geothermal power generation capacity to 7500 MW by 2025 and 9300 MW by 2035.

To meet these targets, the government will provide funds to help companies in their exploration drillings, provide tax holidays, and remove certain taxes.

With a total of 265 potential sites for geothermal plants located across the country, the utilization of the geothermal resources should continue to increase long into the future in Indonesia.

Written by Jamin Djuang – Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training and author of The Story of Oil and Gas: How Oil and Gas Are Explored, Drilled, and Produced