The utilization of geothermal resources to produce electricity has been increasing since the invention of the first geothermal energy generator by Piero Ginori Conti in Italy in 1904.
By 2021, there are more than one hundred geothermal power plants located around the world producing electricity with a total installed capacity of 15854 MW.
Want to know when and where the first geothermal power plants were set up around the world?
Here are the first geothermal power plants built in significant geothermal energy-producing countries.
THE LARDERELLO PLANT – ITALY – 1913
The first and the oldest geothermal power plant in the world is in Larderello in Italy.
Following the invention of the first geothermal energy generator by Piero Ginori Conti in 1904, the Larderello 1 geothermal power plant was completed in 1913 with a capacity of 250 kW.
The Larderello area now has 34 geothermal power plants having a total capacity of 800 MW.
By the way, the Larderello steam field is so awesome that it is referred to as Valle del Diavolo – Devil’s Valley.
Today, Italy has a total installed capacity of 944 MW making it the seventh-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.
WAIRAKEI PLANT – NEW ZEALAND – 1958
New Zealand is the second country in the world that built a geothermal power plant.
The first geothermal plant in New Zealand, the Wairakei Unit 1 station was completed in 1958 with a capacity of 11.2 MW. The Wairakei geothermal plant is located at North Taupo.
Currently, New Zealand has 15 geothermal power stations having a combined capacity of 1037 MW making it the fifth-largest geothermal producer in the world.
THE GEYSERS UNIT 1 PLANT – The US – 1960
The first geothermal power plant in the US is located at the Geysers. The Unit 1 plant was completed in 1960 with a capacity of 11 MW.
The Geysers geothermal field in California is the most prolific geothermal producing field in the US also in the world. It now has 18 geothermal power plants and a total installed capacity of 1590 MW.
Today the US with more than 69 geothermal power plants located in various states has a total installed capacity of 3722 MW. This makes the US the biggest geothermal energy producer in the world.
MATSUKAWA PLANT – JAPAN – 1966
The first geothermal power generation plant in Japan is the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant (Matsukawa Jinetsu Hatsudensho).
The plant started operating in 1966 with an initial capacity of 9.5 MW. It now has an installed capacity of 23.5 MW.
Today, Japan has more than 20 geothermal power plants operating in 18 locations producing 603 MW of electricity making it the tenth-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.
BJARNARFLAG PLANT – ICELAND – 1966
Bjarnarflag geothermal station is the oldest geothermal power plant in Iceland. Bjarnarflag was completed in 1966 having a capacity of 3 MW.
Following the success of the Bjarnarflag plant, several other power plants were built in Iceland.
Iceland, the land of ice and fire, is a natural place to tap its geothermal resources for energy. The country today produces 754 MW of electricity from its geothermal resources making it the ninth-largest geothermal producer in the world.
As 99.96% of its energy needs come from renewable resources, it is probably the greenest country in the world.
CERRO PRIETO PLANT – MEXICO – 1973
The first geothermal power plant in Mexico, Cerro Prieto 1 was commissioned in April 1973.
The Cerro Prieto field is the world’s largest known water-dominated geothermal field. It has five power stations with a total installed capacity of 820 MW.
Today, Mexico, generating 963 MW of electricity is the sixth-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.
KIZILDERE PLANT – TURKEY – 1974
The first geothermal power plant in Turkey is in Kizildere.
The Kizildere geothermal power plant began its operation in 1974 as a prototype system with a 500 KW capacity.
Ten years later, the Kızıldere Jeotermal Elektrik Santralı plant was commissioned in 1984 with an installed capacity of 17.4 MW.
In 2013, the Kizildere Geothermal Power Plant reached an installed capacity of 95 MW making it Turkey’s biggest.
Today, with a total of 1710 MW capacity, Turkey is the fourth largest geothermal energy producer in the world.
AHUACHAPAN PLANT – EL SALVADOR – 1975
The first geothermal power plant in El Salvador is located in Ahuachapan. It was built in 1975 with a capacity of 95 MW.
The second geothermal plant in El Salvador, the Berlin Power Plant, was later built with an installed capacity of 109 MW.
Currently, with a total capacity of 204 MW, geothermal energy generates 20% of the total energy needs in El Salvador.
The contribution of electricity from geothermal resources is set to increase in the future and two new geothermal power plants are scheduled to come online in 2023 and 2026 in the San Vicente and Chinameca fields.
LEYTE PLANT – THE PHILLIPPINES – 1977
The first geothermal power plant in the Philippines, the Leyte Geothermal Power Plant began operation in 1977.
Located on the island of Leyte, the plant started as a pilot plant using a portable 3 MW power generation unit connected to a wellhead.
With the success of the pilot plant, Leyte island now has five geothermal power plants.
Other geothermal plants in the Philippines are in the islands of Luzon, Mindanao, and Negros.
Today the Philippines with a total installed capacity of 1918 MW is the third largest geothermal energy producer in the world.
OLKARIA I POWER STATION – KENYA – 1981
Olkaria I Geothermal Power Station is the first geothermal power plant in Kenya and Africa. The first unit having a capacity of 15 MW was commissioned in 1981.
Several units were added to the Olkaria I facility in later years bringing its total installed capacity to 185 MW by 1985.
Today Kenya has a total installed capacity of 861 MW making it the eighth largest geothermal energy producer in the world.
KAMOJANG PLANT – INDONESIA – 1982
Operating since 1982, the 235 MW Kamojang geothermal plant is the first geothermal power plant in Indonesia. It is located in the Garut area in West Java.
The Kamojang geothermal reservoir was first discovered by the Dutch more than one hundred years ago when it successfully drilled the first steam-producing well in Indonesia.
Today Indonesia has a total installed capacity of 2276 MW making it the second-largest geothermal energy producer in the world.
MOMOTOMBO PLANT – NICARAGUA – 1983
The Momotombo plant is the first geothermal power plant in Nicaragua.
Its first power generating unit of 35 MW was completed in 1983. A second 35 MW unit was later added in 1989 bringing the total capacity to 70 MW.
Nicaragua’s second geothermal plant is the San Jacinto Tizate which was completed in 2013 with an installed capacity of 72 MW.
MIRAVALLES PLANT – COSTA RICA – 1994
The first geothermal power plant in Costa is the 55 MW Miravalles plant commissioned in 1994.
Today with a total installed capacity of 207 MW, Costa Rica is the twelfth largest geothermal producer in the world.
ORTITLAN PLANT – GUATEMALA – 1998
The first geothermal power generation unit in Guatemala was built in Amatitlán geothermal area in 1998. It started as a portable power plant of 5 MW.
A full-scale 20 MW geothermal power plant, the Ortitlan, was later built in the Amatitlan area in 2008.
Guatemala’s second geothermal plant, the Orzunil, located in the Zunil geothermal area was completed with a capacity of 24 MW in 2001.
CERRO PABELLON PLANT – CHILE – 2017
The first geothermal power plant in Chile was built in 2017 by Geotermica El Norte, a joint venture between Enel Green Power Chile and ENAP.
Located at 4500 meters above sea level, the Cerro Pabellón is the highest geothermal plant in the world. It is located on the high plateau of the Atacama Desert in the Antofagasta Region of Chile.
The plant, which uses high enthalpy technology with a binary cycle, is the only operational geothermal plant in South America.
Its third power station with a capacity of 33 MW was completed in 2021 giving Cerro Pabellon a total power of 81 MW.
PLATANARES PLANT – HONDURAS – 2018
The first geothermal power plant of Honduras, the 35 MW Platanares geothermal plant was inaugurated in 2018.
CASANARE PLANT – COLOMBIA – 2021
Colombia inaugurated its first geothermal power unit located in Casanare in March 2021.
The first of its kind, this innovative 100 KW power unit takes advantage of the hot water produced along with the oil from the Las Maracas field.
The world is endowed with huge geothermal resources. As the world marches toward net zero-emission, we shall see the application of geothermal energy as a renewable resource to generate the electricity we need will continue to expand.
Indonesia inaugurated two geothermal plants in 2021: the 45 MW Unit II Sorik Marapi Geothermal Power Plant on 28 July 2021 and the 98.4 MW Rantau Dedap Power plant on 26 December 2021.
This article is written by Jamin Djuang – Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training – based on information from various sources.
The upstream oil and gas operators in Indonesia contributed 6.67 billion USD of revenue for the government of Indonesia in the first half of 2021. This amount is 91.7% of the full-year Indonesian government revenue target from E&P activities in 2021.
Mr. Dwi Soetjipto, the head of SKK Migas, is thankful that the 2021 first-half revenue contribution was better than expected in a meet-the-press event on 16 July 2021.
Here are the results from the oil and gas exploration and production activities in Indonesia in the first half of 2021 according to SKK Migas.
Oil Lifting Costs
The oil industry managed to lower the oil and gas production cost in 2021. The average production cost in the first half of this year is USD 12.17 per BOE (barrel of oil equivalent) whereas it was USD 13.71 per BOE in the same period last year.
Oil and Gas Production
The average oil production in the first half of 2021 is 667,000 BOPD. This is below the 705,000 BOPD target set by the government for 2021.
The average gas production is 5430 MMSCFD in the first six months of 2021. This is below the 5638 MMSCFD targets of the government for 2021.
To make up for the shortfall of oil and gas production, SKK Migas is asking the oil operators to speed up their work programs.
The average combined oil and gas production in the first half of 2021 is 1.64 million BOEPD.
To stimulate oil and gas exploration and production in Indonesia, SKK Migas is pushing for government approval on several incentives.
The three incentives that are currently being proposed are:
Providing a certain type of tax holiday to all oil and gas operators
Reducing the processing fees charged by the Badak LNG plant to US$0.22 per MMBTU.
Lowering tax paid by companies who provide certain types of goods and services to oil companies.
Completed Oil and Gas Projects in Indonesia
Seven upstream oil and gas projects out of the 12 targeted for 2021 have been completed in the first half of this year, according to SKK Migas.
These 1.46 billion USD projects contributed 9850 BOPD of new oil and 475 MMSCFD of gas.
Here are the 7 completed projects: 1. First phase production from Belato-2 oil field by Seleraya Merangin Dua in South Sumatera
2. EOR in Jirak Field by Pertamina EP in South Sumatera
3. Development of KLD gas field by Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ
4. Gas Supply to the Balikpapan refinery from Bontang by Pertamina Hulu Mahakam
5. West Pangkah field development by Saka Indonesia Pangkah Ltd
6. Merakes gas field development in East Sepinggan block by ENI
7. Gas supply from South Jambi B block to PLN Jambi by Jindi South Jambi B.
The Jambaran Tiung Biru Project
SKK Migas is working closely with Pertamina EP Cepu on the development of the significant Jambaran Tiung Biru project. This gas field development project in East Java is categorized as a national strategic project.
The Jambaran Tiung Biru project is more than 90% complete and gas production is expected to come on stream in the fourth quarter of 2021.
Plans of Field Development
SKK Migas approved 14 plans of field development (POD) that will potentially increase the oil and gas reserves by 131.2 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).
Exploration Drilling and Discoveries
Oil operators completed seven exploration wells with the following results:
Gas discovery in two wells: Maha-02 and Fanny-02
Oil discovery in two wells: Hidayah-01 and MSDE-01A
Three dry wells: Barakuda-1x, NSD-1 ExpTail and Plajawan Dalam.
The P50 reserves from Well Hidayah-01 are 87 MMBOE. The P50 combined reserves from wells Maha-02, Fanny-02, and MSDE-01A are 154 MMBOE.
P50 reserves are oil and gas reserves that have a 50% or greater probability of being recovered from a petroleum asset.
Drilling, Workovers, and Seismic Survey Activities
Number of development wells drilled – 186
Number of exploration wells drilled – 13
Number of workovers – 309
Number of well services – 11307
2D seismic survey completed – 1917 Km
3D seismic survey completed – 673 Km2
This article is adapted by Jamin Djuang based on the information provided by SKK Migas. He is the Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training.
After 97 years in Indonesia and producing more than 12 billion barrels of oil from the jungle in central Sumatera, Chevron Pacific Indonesia finally hands over its vast operation in the Rokan block to Pertamina Hulu Rokan on 8th August 2021.
The amazing story of Chevron Pacific Indonesia began in 1924 when Standard Oil of California (Socal), sent its exploration team to Indonesia to assess the oil potential in the basin in central Sumatera.
After the initial exploration expedition, Standard Oil of California set up the Dutch registered company, NV Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (NPPM), in June 1930 so it could conduct business in Indonesia, which was under the control of the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) at that time.
In 1936 NPPM became CALTEX when Socal and Texaco (Texas Oil Company) jointly formed a company called California Texas Petroleum Corporation to expand their operation in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand.
For most of the history of Chevron Pacific Indonesia, the company was known as Caltex or CPI (Caltex Pacific Indonesia). For this reason, the name Caltex or CPI is used frequently in this article to describe the activities and achievements of Chevron Pacific Indonesia.
The achievements of Caltex in Indonesia are awesome. Here are some of them:
It discovered two giant oil fields in Central Sumatera – The Duri and the Minas field.
It also discovered more than 100 oil and gas fields in the Rokan block and several other blocks.
It is the longest surviving oil company that began its operation in Indonesia as a Dutch company.
It is the biggest oil producer in Indonesia of all time. It produced more than 12 billion barrels of oil in Sumatera and its daily production reached 1000,000 BOPD at its peak.
It operated the famous and successful Duri steam flood.
Rokan block is the largest oil concession block in Indonesia.
It drilled a total of 16023 wells in the four blocks it operated: The Rokan block, the CPP block (Coastal Plain Pekanbaru), the Siak block and the MFK block (Mountain Front Kuantan).
MILESTONES OF CHEVRON PACIFIC INDONESIA
As the 8th of August 2021 marks the end of Chevron Pacific Indonesia, here are the key milestones of Caltex Pacific Indonesia’s operations in Indonesia.
Standard Oil of California sent a team of geologists to Indonesia in March 1924 to survey the oil potential in Central Sumatera.
Chevron registered the company Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (NPPM) in 1930 so it could operate in Indonesia which was under the rule of the Netherlands East Indies.
Chevron and Texaco (Texas Oil Company) jointly formed California Texas Petroleum Corporation (Caltex) in 1936 to market its oil products in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand.
In Indonesia, NPPM became Caltex Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (CPPM).
Caltex then received the right to explore and produce oil in an area in central Sumatera from the Netherlands East Indies. The area is now known as the Rokan block.
Caltex made its first discovery in Indonesia when it discovered oil in the Sebanga field in Riau in August 1040.
Caltex discovered the giant oil field Duri in 1941. Duri has the largest oil deposit in Southeast Asia at that time.
Caltex discovered another giant oil field, the Minas field, in December 1944.
Indonesia declared its independence in 1945. This is the event that changed the ways how oil companies operated in Indonesia.
PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, commonly referred to as CPI, was established in 1951 as an Indonesian company and was awarded the right from the government of Indonesia to continue to operate the Rokan block under a work contract scheme.
Oil production from the Minas field started in April 1952 and was exported from Parawan and Pakning. The initial oil production from the Minas field was 15,000 BOPD.
The Duri field started to produce oil in February 1954.
Caltex discovered the Bekasap field in September 1955.
Caltex built the first road that connected Pekanbaru and Dumai. It was also the first road that linked the east and west coasts of the island of Sumatra.
Caltex completed the Dumai oil export terminal in July 1958. At the same time, Caltex also completed the construction of oil pipelines from Duri to Dumai.
Minas crude was exported from the Dumai terminal beginning in January 1959.
PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia appointed Julius Tahija, the first native Indonesian as its president in 1963.
Oil production from the Bekasap field began in June 1965.
Oil production from the Duri field during the primary recovery phase peaked at 65,000 BOPD in 1965.
The Pematang field came online in July 1966 and the Pungut field in August 1966.
Caltex cumulative oil production reached 1000,000,000 barrels in August 1967.
Caltex constructed an extensive pipeline and road networks to connect major fields such as Bangko, Bekasap, Pematang, Petani, and Kotabatak. These fields significantly increased its oil production output.
The cumulative oil production from the Minas field reached 1000,000,000 barrels in May 1969.
The Petapahan field began producing oil in January 1973.
Daily oil production of Caltex reached 1000,000 BOPD for the first time in May 1973.
Caltex started the Duri steam flood pilot project.
CPI completed the construction of the 350-meter long bridge over the Siak river connecting the city of Pekanbaru to Rumbai, and former President Soeharto inaugurated the bridge in April 1977. Rumbai is the area where the main office and housing complex of Caltex are located.
Caltex completed its first oil Gathering Station under the Duri steam flood project. More gathering stations were later added as the Duri steam flood expanded.
Caltex completed its main office building in Rumbai.
The late former President Soeharto inaugurated the Duri Steam Flood on 3 March 1990.
Caltex Pacific Indonesia obtained a 20-year extension to its production sharing agreement with Indonesia to operate the Rokan block until 2021.
Caltex implemented the Strategic Business Unit management system in 1995.
Caltex completed the Dumai Main Office in May 1997.
Chevron acquired Texaco in October 2000.
Caltex handed over the Coastal Pekanbaru Plain (CPP) block which it had acquired in 1971 to PT Bumi Siak Pusako – Pertamina Hulu on 18 August 2002.
The new operator is a joint operation body between PT Bumi Siak Pusako (BSP) which is owned by the local government in Riau and Pertamina.
With the acquisition of Texaco by Chevron, Caltex Pacific Indonesia was renamed Chevron Pacific Indonesia in September 2005.
Chevron Pacific Indonesia came under the umbrella of Chevron IndoAsia Business Unit in 2005 along with Chevron Indonesia Company (ex-Unocal Indonesia Company), Chevron Makassar (the Makassar Deepwater Project), Chevron Geothermal Indonesia (Ex-Unocal geothermal projects in Darajat and Salak), Mandau Cipta Tenaga Nusantara, and Chevron Geothermal Philippines.
Chevron Pacific Indonesia marked the 11th billion barrels of oil produced from its Sumatra operation in 2008.
Chevron Pacific Indonesia handed over the operatorship of the Langgak block to PT Sarana Pembangunan Riau in January 2010.
With the help of the successful steam flood, the Duri field’s cumulative oil production reached 2.6 billion barrels in 2018.
Total cumulative oil production of CPI from all fields reached 13 billion barrels.
Chevron Pacific Indonesia hands over the prolific Rokan block to Pertamina Hulu Rokan on 8 August 2021. Rokan block with an area of 6220 KM2 is the largest oil concession block in Indonesia. Stretching over five “kabupaten” (regencies) in central Sumatera it produced oil from more than 12000 wells located in 80 fields. It also operates one of the biggest and most successful steam floods in the world.
The top ten producing oil fields in the Rokan block are Minas, Duri, Bangko, Bekasap, Balam South, Kotabatak, Petani, Pematang, Petapahan, and Pager.
Although the total oil production from the Rokan block has come down to 160,000 barrels per day, it is still a very significant oil asset for Indonesia as it is contributing 24% of the country’s total oil production according to SKK Migas.
Presidents of Caltex Pacific Indonesia Since 1963
One of the keys to success of CPI is its adaptability. The company took initiatives to work well with both the central government of Indonesia and the local government and the communities.
Caltex Pacific Indonesia decided in 1963 to Indonesianize the company. It appointed Mr. Julius Tahija as the first native Indonesian as the company president. All its subsequent presidents have been Indonesians.
Here are the past presidents of Chevron Pacific Indonesia since 1963:
1. Julius Tahija, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1963 – 1977)
2. Haroen Al Rasjid, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1977 – 1993)
3. Baihaki Hamid Hakim, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1993-1999)
4. Humayunbosha, President of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1999-2004),
5. W. Yudiana Ardiwinata, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia (2004-2005),
6. Suwito Anggoro, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director Indonesia Business Unit (2005-2010),
7. Abdul Hamid Batubara, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director Indonesia Business Unit (2010-2014),
8.Albert B. M. Simanjuntak, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director IBU (2014-2021),
Although the signboard with a Caltex logo will no longer be seen at the entrance of Rumbai camp, the company will continue to be remembered by people who have worked for the company and the people who have lived in the surrounding communities.
Caltex will be remembered not just for what it did in the oil fields, but it will also be remembered for what it did for the surrounding people and communities.
Here are some of the most notable legacy of Caltex:
Building the first state senior high school (SMAN-1) in Pekanbaru in 1957
Completion of the 350 meter-long bridge over the Siak River in 1977.
Establishing the polytechnic college – Politeknik Caltex Riau in 2001.
This article is written by Jamin Djuang. He had been in Rumbai and Duri conducting training for Caltex and traveled the private road connecting Rumbai and Duri. He enjoyed eating in the Caltex cafeteria in Rumbai where it served both delicious Indonesian and western food.
Some of the information in this article was provided by Mr. Elthaf who worked for CPI in Minas field for 36 years.
Training and development have become ever more important as companies face significant skills gaps during this rapidly changing business environment.
How will you know if your training meets the skills gaps and generates the desired impacts to make your company successful?
The original model of training evaluation developed by Raymond Katzell suggested that training should be evaluated in four steps:
Step 1: Measure reaction.
Step 2: Measure learning.
Step 3: Measure behavior.
Step 4: Measure results.
This is the model that Kirkpatrick promoted for many years. Dr. Jack Phillips, the author or editor of more than 100 books, went further to define the methodology and add another step. He, with many other practitioners, began to call these levels. These levels of evaluation are
Level 1 – At level one, the results of training are assessed based on participants’ reactions to the training and the action plan submitted by the participants. This is commonly done immediately after the training.
Level 2 – At level two, the results of training are assessed by how much learning is acquired by participants. This is done by conducting some form of testing.
Level 3 – At level three, the training evaluator will find out if the acquired skills, knowledge, or attitude (SKA) are applied and implemented by the trainees. This is usually done several weeks or months after training.
Level 4 – At level four, evaluators assess the impact, both tangible and intangible, of the training several weeks or months after the training. Examples of tangible impacts are cost savings, higher productivity, better quality, sales increase, etc. Examples of intangible benefits are attitude improvement, better communication, etc.
Level 5 – At level five, evaluators measure the return on investment of training or any other people development program.
Phillips went on to develop process standards and pushed the methodology through the ROI Certification process. Today, over two-thirds of the Fortune 500 companies use this methodology, 26 governments around the world, many NGOs, non-profits, approximately 300 health care organizations, and 150 universities. It is now the most used evaluation system in the world.
ROI is an important measure that is used to show the efficient use of funds. Management is interested in ROI as it compares the actual monetary benefits of the training program relative to the total costs of the training.
STEPS TO MEASURE THE ROI
Here are the steps to measure the ROI of a training program.
Design the training based on business needs.
Plan the training to be evaluated at all levels.
Design the training such the skills, knowledge, or attitude taught can be applied and implemented on the job.
Collect Level 1 data – reactions and action plans of trainees- at the end of training.
Collect Level 2 data – learning – at the end of training.
Collect Level 3 data – application and implementation – several weeks or months after training.
Collect Level 4 data – Both the tangible business impacts and the intangible impacts – several weeks or months after training.
Isolate the effect of the program by identifying other factors that may impact the outcomes of the program. This is a critical aspect in producing credible ROI results.
Convert Level 4 data into monetary values of the training benefits.
Annualize the monetary values to determine the monetary benefit of the training over 12 months.
Collect data on the total costs of training.
Calculate the ROI using this formula. ROI = (Benefits – Costs)/Costs x 100%
THE BENEFITS OF MEASURING ROI
As the need for skill-building is increasing and the training budget is getting bigger, it is important to know whether you are getting positive values from your investment in training.
When you have the ROI data to prove to management the value of your training, you will get more supports for the training programs you plan conduct in the future.
Dr. Jack J. Phillips is the pioneer in measuring the ROI in training. Over the past 20 years, Dr. Jack Phillips and Dr. Patti Phillips have trained and certified thousands of training professionals on the ROI Methodology. More than two-thirds of the Fortune 500 companies are applying this methodology in the training they conduct.
How about your organization? Does your management ask you to measure the ROI or financial benefits of your training programs? Have you done this before? Do you have the competency and confidence to do it?
Indonesia currently has six oil refineries and they are all operated by Pertamina, the national oil company of Indonesia.
Here are the top five refineries in Indonesia:
Dumai Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan II Dumai
Plaju Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan III Plaju
Cilacap Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan IV Cilacap
Balikpapan Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan V Balikpapan
Balongan Refinery, officially known as Unit Pengolahan VI Balongan
Besides these five refineries, Pertamina operates a small 10,000 BOPD Kasim refinery in Sorong, West Papua.
With a total capacity to process 1,046,700 barrels of crude oil per day, all refineries in Indonesia are currently supplying about 50% of the domestic fuel needs.
In 2019, Indonesia imported 24.7 billion liters of fuel.
To meet its domestic fuel needs, Indonesia intends to produce all the fuels it needs by 2026. It hopes to increase the crude processing capacity to two million barrels per day in 2025 under the ambitious 17 billion dollar Refinery Development Master Plan (RDMP).
Based on the RDMP, the top five refineries will be upgraded to increase their capabilities and capacity. Currently, Pertamina is expanding and upgrading the Cilacap and Balikpapan refineries.
Pertamina also has a plan to build two new refineries: one in Tuban in East Java and one in Bontang in East Kalimantan.
The project to construct the 300,000 barrels of crude oil per day Tuban refinery is currently underway. It is expected to complete in 2026.
Here are the details of the top five refineries.
Dumai refinery started operating in 1971 and it is located in Dumai in Sumatera.
The Dumai refinery is designed with a capacity to process 170,000 barrels of crude oil and it supplies Sumatera with fuels such as gasoline, aviation fuel, diesel fuel, kerosene, solvent, green coke, and LPG.
This refinery is unique as it produces the power it needs using the natural gas produced from the surrounding gas fields namely the Grissik field operated by ConocoPhillips, the fields in the Bentu block operated by Mega Energi Persada (PT EMP), and the Jambi Merang gas fields operated by Pertamina Hulu Energi Jambi Merang (PHE Jambi Merang).
By using the natural gas produced from these fields, the Dumai refinery can reduce its fuel cost by 40%.
The Plaju refinery and petrochemical complex comprises two old refineries located in the Palembang area in South Sumatera: one in Plaju and another one in Sungei Gerong.
The refinery in Plaju is the oldest existing refinery in Indonesia. It was built in 1904 by BPM (Batavia Petroleum Maatschappy), a predecessor of Shell. Pertamina acquired this refinery from BPM in 1949.
The refinery at Sungei Gerong was built by SVPM (Standard Vacuum Petroleum Maatschappij) 1926. Pertamina acquired this refinery from Stanvac in 1970.
Pertamina integrated these two refineries in 1972 by constructing connecting pipelines and officially called them Unit Pengolahan III Plaju.
The integrated Plaju refinery and petrochemical complex has a combined refining capacity of 118,000 barrels per day. It processes crude oil and intermediate products to produce gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, the B20 biodiesel fuel, aviation fuel, and fuel oil.
The types of gasoline it produces include the Premium, Pertalite, Pertamax, and Pertamax Racing.
The Plaju refinery also produces petrochemicals such as Polypropylene and PTA.
According to Pertamina, the Plaju refinery and petrochemical complex will see a new stand-alone 20,000 barrels per day “Green Refinery” in 2024 taking advantage of the locally produced crude palm oil (CPO). The new unit will produce green diesel fuel, green aviation fuel, green naphtha and green LPG.
The Cilacap refinery is the largest and most integrated refinery and petrochemical complex in Indonesia. With its current refining capacity of 348,000 barrels of crude oil per day, it produces 34% of the total fuel production in Indonesia.
The Cilacap refinery was initially completed in 1976 with a capacity of processing 100,000 barrels of crude oil per day. However, as a strategic refinery due to its location being in Central Java, it has been revamped and expanded several times.
Today, this Pertamina Unit IV refinery and petrochemical complex consists of three units:
Oil Refining Unit #1
Oil Refining Unit #2
Oil Refining Unit #1 was completed in 1976 with a capacity of processing 100,000 barrels of oil per day and it was designed to specifically handle crude oil from the Middle East.
This refining unit produces gasoline, lube oil, and asphalt. It underwent debottlenecking in 1998 to increase its refining capacity to 118,000 BOPD.
To meet the increasing demand for fuel, Oil Refining Unit #2 was completed in 1983 with a capacity of 200,000 BOPD. Its capacity was later increased to 230,000 BOPD in 1998.
This second unit is designed to handle both crude oil from the Middle East and Indonesia.
The Paraxylene Unit, completed in 1990, produces petrochemicals such as paraxylene, benzene, raffinate, and heavy aromatic. Some of these products are shipped to the Plaju refinery for further processing.
The famous Balikpapan refinery was completed in 1922 by BPM (Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij), the predecessor of Royal Dutch Shell. It was built to process the crude oil that BPM had discovered in Balikpapan in East Kalimantan.
The refinery was heavily damaged twice during World War II and subsequently restored. It was later acquired by Pertamina from BPM in 1949.
The refinery has been expanded and upgraded several times to meet the increasing demand for fuel in the eastern part of Indonesia.
The Balikpapan refinery is the second-largest refinery in Indonesia. At its current crude oil processing capacity of 260,000 barrels, it processes 25% of the total crude oil intake and supplies about 15% of the fuel needs in Indonesia.
Under the RMDP refinery expansion plan, it is set to become even bigger. It is currently undergoing a massive 5 billion dollar expansion which will increase its processing capacity from 260,000 barrels per day to 360,000 barrels per day.
Besides increasing its processing capacity, the expansion project is also aimed to improve its crude flexibility and product quality. The refinery will have the capability to produce high-quality Euro V standard fuels.
The Balikpapan refinery expansion includes:
A residual fluid catalytic cracker (RFCC) unit with a design capacity of 90,000 barrels per stream per day (BPSD)
An LPG sulfur removal unit,
A propylene recovery unit
An 80,000 BPSD middle distillate hydrotreater.
The project will also upgrade the existing vacuum distillation unit (VDU), crude distillation unit (CDU), hydrocracker unit (HCU), and LPG recovery units to increase the production of Euro V gasoline, diesel fuel, and LPG by 100,000 BPD, 30,000 BPD and 930 tons respectively per day.
Included in the project is the expansion of the crude oil receiving capacity by adding:
A single-point mooring system and a pipeline end manifold, capable of handling crude carriers with 320,000 deadweight tonnage (DWT).
A 20-inch onshore pipeline from Lawe-Lawe terminal to Panajam terminal.
A 52-inch subsea pipeline from the Panajam terminal to the refinery.
Two new one-million barrel capacity crude oil storage tanks.
Located in Indramayu, West Java, the Balongan refinery was completed in 1994. It was revamped in 2003 to increase its processing capacity to 130,000 barrels of crude oil per day.
The Balongan refinery and petrochemical complex is designed to process crude oil from the Duri and Minas fields.
It produces a variety of fuels such as Premium, Pertamax, Pertamax Plus, diesel fuel, kerosene, and LPG. It also produces petrochemicals such as propylene.
This Unit VI refinery of Pertamina is a strategic and vital refinery to Indonesia as it supplies the fuel needs of the nation’s capital city of Jakarta and West Java.
The Balongan refinery prides itself for being the refinery that applies eco-friendly technology and that processes residue into high-quality products.
The refinery experienced a fire incident on 29th March 2021. Four of its storage tanks caught fire.
The 10,000 BPD Kasim refinery is the newest but the smallest refinery of Pertamina.
Located in Sorong in West Papua, Kasim refinery was completed in 1997 to meet the needs for fuels in the most eastern part of Indonesia. It takes advantage of processing the crude oil produced from the nearby fields of Walio and Salawati.
This Pertamina Unit VII refinery is currently operating below its design capacity of 10,000 BOPD. This is due to the declining oil production from the two oil fields.
To make the plant economical to operate, Pertamina will need to increase the crude supply by bringing in crude oil via oil tankers. To do so, it will need to construct four 110,000 barrel storage tanks.
Currently, the Kasim refinery is supplying less than 15% of the fuel needed in Papua and Maluku. It is hoped that Kasim can process 50,000 BOPD in the future.
This article is adapted by Jamin Djuang from information published by Pertamina and other sources. He is the Chief Training Officer of LDI Training.
PT Pertamina (Persero) is the national oil company of Indonesia, and also the largest company in Indonesia. It is the parent holding company of all the many Pertamina subsidiary companies.
As an integrated oil company, Pertamina involves in oil and gas exploration and production, refining and petrochemicals, gas distribution through pipelines, distribution of fuels and lube oil to every corner of the land.
On the upstream side, Pertamina owns many oil fields and work areas and has vast and expansive oil exploration and production operations in Indonesia. It also has oil and gas interests in several other countries.
Pertamina’s upstream oil and gas interests are under the wings of PT Pertamina Hulu Energi (PHE). It is the sub-holding company of PT Pertamina (Persero) in charge of its entire upstream oil and gas assets and operations.
The assets include oil and gas assets that Pertamina itself develops, assets it acquired from BPM (Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij), assets it acquired from international companies upon the expiry of their production sharing contracts, and its exploration work areas.
As Pertamina’s oil fields are located in many islands of Indonesia covering a vast area of more than 113,000 Km2, its assets and operations are divided into five regions. Each region is further divided into zones.
Here are the five regions including the zones under each region and their leadership teams.
REGION 1- Sumatera
Pertamina’s assets in Sumatera fall under Region 1 and they are managed under PT Pertamina Hulu Rokan (PHR).
Consisting of four zones, Pertamina Hulu Rokan manages the following assets:
In Zone 1 – North Sumatera Offshore (NSO), North Sumatera Basin (NSB), Rantau, Pangkalan Susu, West Glagah Kambuna, Siak, Kampar, Lirik, Jambi, Jambi Merang, Jabung
In Zone 2 – North Rokan (Rokan Utara)
In Zone 3 – South Rokan (Rokan Selatan)
In Zone 4 – Ogan Komering, Raja Tempirai, Ramba, Corridor, Prabumulih, Limau, Pendopo, Adera
Here is the current leadership team stewarding Pertamina’s exploration and production activities in Region 1.
Novy Hendri – VP Exploration
Tri Sasongko – VP Development and Drilling
Junizar Harman – VP Operation and Production
Saptiadi Nugroho – VP Business Support
Ani Surakhman – General Manager of Zone 1
Ahmad Miftah – General Manager of Zone 4
REGION 2 – Java and Natuna
Region 2 covers Pertamina upstream activities in West Java and the Natuna Sea, and they are managed under PT Pertamina Eksplorasi dan Produksi (PEP).
Here are the zones in Region 2 and the assets under each zone.
Zone 5 – Offshore North West Java (PHE ONWJ), Abar, Anggursi
Zone 6 – Offshore South East Sumatera (PHE OSES)
Zone 7 – Tambun, Subang, Jatibarang, East Natuna, The Natuna Sea Block A
Here is the new leadership team of Region 2.
Muharram Jaya – VP Exploration
Merry Luciawaty – VP Development and Drilling
Wisnu Hindadari – VP Operation and Productions
Bongbongan Tampubolon – VP Business Support
Achmad Agus Miftakhurrohman – General Manager of Zone 5
Cosmas Supriatna – General Manager of Zone 6
Astri Pujianto – General Manager of Zone 7
REGION 3 – Kalimantan
Region 3 assets and operations are located in Kalimantan, and PT Pertamina Hulu Indonesia (PHI) is the operation holding company of Pertamina in Region 3.
Here are the zones in Region 3 and the assets in each zone:
Zone 8 – Pertamina Hulu Mahakam (PHM), Pertamina West Ganal (PHWG), East Sepinggan
Zone 9 – Pertamina Hulu Sanga Sanga (PHSS), Sangata, Maratua, Tanjung
Zone 10 – Pertamina Hulu Kalimantan Timur (PHKT), Bunyu, Tarakan, Nunukan, East Ambalat, Simenggaris, Ambalat, Bukat
Here is the leadership team supervising Pertamina’s exploration and production activities in Region 3.
Bayu Giriansyah – VP Exploration
Arief Prasetyo Handoyo – VP Development and Drilling
Rachmad Wibowo – VP Production
Satya Nugraha – VP Business Support
Agus Amperianto – General Manager of Zone 8
Andri Haribowo – General manager of Zone 9
Raam Krisna – General Manager of Zone 10
REGION 4 – East Java and Eastern Part of Indonesia
Pertamina’s oil and assets located in the eastern part of Indonesia and East Java are under Region 4.
PT Pertamina Eksplorasi dan Produksi Cepu (PEPC) is the operation holding company in charge of Region 4.
Here are the zones in Region 4 and their assets:
Zone 11 – Alas Dara Kemuning (PEPC ADK), Cepu, West Madura Offshore (PHE WMO), Randugunting, Sukowati, Poleng, Tuban East Java
Zone 12 – Jambaran Tiung Biru (JTB), Banyu Urip
Zone 13 – Donggi Matindok, Senoro Tolidi, Makassar Strait
Zone 14 – Papua, Salawati, Kepala Burung, Babar Selaru, Semai
Here is the current leadership team of Region 4.
Ali Sundja – VP Development and Drilling
Muhamad Arifin – VP Operation and Production
Fransiono Lazarus – VP Business Support
Dedy Syam – General Manager of Zone 11
Iman Nur Akbar – General Manager of Zone 13
Djudjuwanto General Manager of Zona 14
REGION 5 – International
Pertamina also has oil and gas interests in several countries outside Indonesia. Its international E&P operations and assets fall under Region 5 and they are under the management of PT Pertamina International Eksplorasi dan Produksi (PIEP).
Here are the zones of Region 5 and their locations:
Zone 15 – Algeria
Zone 16 – Iraq
Zone 17 – Malaysia
Here is the current leadership team supervising Pertamina’s international exploration and production activities.
Fuji Koesumadewi – VP Exploration
Yosi Hiroshiadi – VP Development and Drilling
Charles P. Sialagan – VP Operation and Production
Ria Noveria – VP Business Support
Edwil Suzandi – Country Manager in Algeria
This article is adapted by Jamin Djuang – Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training – from information published by Pertamina and various other sources.
This has been a very surprising and great week for the oil industry.
The OPEC+ members – Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and their Russia-led allies – held their meeting this week and decided not to increase oil production in April. As a result, oil prices and share prices of all major oil companies soared this week ending on 5 March 2021.
The price of Brent crude oil surged to $69.36 per barrel while the WTI crude oil closed higher also at $66.28 this week.
STOCK PRICES OF MAJOR OIL COMPANIES
All oil major companies saw huge gains in their stock prices this week.
Here are their closing prices and the weekly changes.
CHEVRON – $109.00 up 9%
EXXONMOBIL – $60.93 up 12.1%
CONOCOPHILLIPS – $58.34 up 12.2%
BP – $26.77 up 9.7%
ROYAL DUTCH SHELL – 18.13 EUR up 7.3%
TOTAL – 40.97 EUR up 6.7%
ENI – 10.06 EUR up 6.1%
The weekly US rig count increased to 403. The oil companies in the US added one rig last week, according to Baker Hughes Rig Counts.
The total global rig count continues its monthly gain. It increased by 87 rigs in the month of February 2021 to 1270. The total global rig count in January was 1183.
This weekly report is adapted by LDI Training from various sources of information.
The upstream oil and gas industry of Indonesia invested 10.21 billion US dollars and performed well in 2020 according to SKK Migas, the special task force in charge of upstream oil and gas activities of oil companies in Indonesia.
The oil and gas industry of Indonesia successfully met and even exceeded some of the 2020 targets that were set by the Indonesian government in the following key areas:
Reserve Replacement ratio (RRR).
Controlling the cost recovery
Revenue intake by the government
Completion of oil and gas projects
RESERVE REPLACEMENT RATIO
The reserve replacement ratio in 2020 is 101.6%. The oil industry added 705 MMBOE of reserve in 2020.
OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION
The average daily oil lifting in 2020 is 706,000 BOPD. This exceeded the government target of 705,000 BOPD.
However, daily gas production in 2020 is 5461 MMSCFD. This is below the government target of 5556 MMSCFD.
The amount of cost recovery in 2020 is US$ 8.12 billion which is in line with the government expectations.
OIL REVENUE TO GOVERNMENT
The oil industry contributed US$ 8.4 billion of revenues to the Indonesian government. This amount is 41% higher than the expected amount of US$5.86 billion.
COMPLETION OF EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION PROJECTS
Fifteen oil and gas projects went on stream in 2020. These new projects added 9182 barrels of oil per day and 111 million SCF of gas per day.
3199 Km of 2D seismic and 1251 Km2 of 3D seismic surveys were completed in 2020.
SKK Migas was active and running in 2020 to keep the oil and gas exploration and production activities at a high level. Here are some of the key actions that SKK Migas undertook in 2020:
SKK Migas signed twenty-four PSC side letters and sixty-one letters of agreement (LoA).
The government reduced the prices of gas sold to domestic companies to stimulate economic growth.
Allowing oil and gas operators to delay topping up the Abandonment and Site Restoration fund.
Eliminating the costs to oil operators of using government assets in their exploration and production activities.
Allowing oil companies to accelerate asset appreciation.
SKK Migas and Chevron Pacific Indonesia signed the Heads of Agreement to ensure the continuity of a high level of activities such as well drilling and production optimization in the Rokan Block during the final phase of the PSC contract. Chevron will hand over the operatorship of The Rokan block to Pertamina when its production sharing contract expires in August 2021.
SKK Migas approved the Plan of Development (POD) submitted by Repsol for the development of the huge Kaliberau gas field having 445 billion SCF of gas reserve in the Sakakemang block. The total investment in this project is estimated at 359 million US dollars.
PERFORMANCE OF THE OIL AND GAS OPERATORS IN 2020
Here are the top nine oil and gas operators who exceeded their oil production targets in 2020.
Chevron Pacific Indonesia
Pertamina Hulu Mahakam
Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ
Pertamina Hulu Energi OSES
Petrochina International Jabung
Medco E & P Natuna
Pertamina Hulu Sanga Sanga
Medco E&P Rimau
JOB Pertamina – Medco Tomori Sulawesi
Here are the top nine oil and gas operators who exceeded their gas production targets in 2020.
Pertamina Hulu Mahakam
Eni Muara Bakau BV
JOB Pertamina – Medco Tomori Sulawesi
Premier Oil Indonesia
Petrochina International Jabung
Medco E & P Natuna
Kangean Energi Indonesia
Pearl Oil (Sebuku)
EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION TARGETS FOR 2021
Being optimistic that Indonesia will meet the target of 1 million BOPD and 12 BSCFD of gas by 2030, SKK Migas is committed to keeping oil and gas production high in 2021. Here are its ambitious targets for oil and gas activities in 2021:
Daily oil production – 705,000 BOPD. This is the same target as in 2020.
The number of exploration wells – 43. This is a significant increase from 28, the actual number of exploration wells drilled in 2020.
The number of development wells – 616. This target is much higher compared with the 240 development wells drilled in 2020.
Number of workovers – 615
Number of well services – 26,431
2-D seismic survey – 3569 Km
3-D seismic survey – 1549 Km2
The Indonesian oil industry performed well in 2020. Mr. Dwi Soetjipto, the head of SKK Migas said: “The year 2020 was a difficult year for many oil operators due to the Covid 19 pandemic and the low oil prices. Nevertheless, the oil industry of Indonesia was able to meet several targets set by the government. Hopefully, this will help the country’s economy.”
This blog article is adapted from “Kinerja Hulu Migas Gemilang Sepanjang 2020” published by SKK Migas on 4 January 2021.
This article is adapted from SKK Migas news by Jamin Djuang – Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training.