The Amazing Chevron Pacific Indonesia

Welcome sign board at Caltex Rumbai camp entrance. Photo by Sasmito Adibowo.

After 97 years in Indonesia and producing more than 12 billion barrels of oil from the jungle in central Sumatera, Chevron Pacific Indonesia finally hands over its vast operation in the Rokan block to Pertamina Hulu Rokan on 8th August 2021.

The amazing story of Chevron Pacific Indonesia began in 1924 when Standard Oil of California (Socal), sent its exploration team to Indonesia to assess the oil potential in the basin in central Sumatera.

After the initial exploration expedition, Standard Oil of California set up the Dutch registered company, NV Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (NPPM), in June 1930 so it could conduct business in Indonesia, which was under the control of the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) at that time.

In 1936 NPPM became CALTEX when Socal and Texaco (Texas Oil Company) jointly formed a company called California Texas Petroleum Corporation to expand their operation in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand.

For most of the history of Chevron Pacific Indonesia, the company was known as Caltex or CPI (Caltex Pacific Indonesia). For this reason, the name Caltex or CPI is used frequently in this article to describe the activities and achievements of Chevron Pacific Indonesia. 

The achievements of Caltex in Indonesia are awesome. Here are some of them:

  • It discovered two giant oil fields in Central Sumatera – The Duri and the Minas field.
  • It also discovered more than 100 oil and gas fields in the Rokan block and several other blocks.
  • It is the longest surviving oil company that began its operation in Indonesia as a Dutch company.
  • It is the biggest oil producer in Indonesia of all time. It produced more than 12 billion barrels of oil in Sumatera and its daily production reached 1000,000 BOPD at its peak.
  • It operated the famous and successful Duri steam flood.
  • Rokan block is the largest oil concession block in Indonesia.
  • It drilled a total of 16023 wells in the four blocks it operated: The Rokan block, the CPP block (Coastal Plain Pekanbaru), the Siak block and the MFK block (Mountain Front Kuantan).

MILESTONES OF CHEVRON PACIFIC INDONESIA

As the 8th of August 2021 marks the end of Chevron Pacific Indonesia, here are the key milestones of Caltex Pacific Indonesia’s operations in Indonesia.  

1924

Standard Oil of California sent a team of geologists to Indonesia in March 1924 to survey the oil potential in Central Sumatera.        

1930

Chevron registered the company Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (NPPM) in 1930 so it could operate in Indonesia which was under the rule of the Netherlands East Indies.

1936

Chevron and Texaco (Texas Oil Company) jointly formed California Texas Petroleum Corporation (Caltex) in 1936 to market its oil products in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand.

In Indonesia, NPPM became Caltex Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij (CPPM).

Caltex then received the right to explore and produce oil in an area in central Sumatera from the Netherlands East Indies. The area is now known as the Rokan block.    

1940

Caltex made its first discovery in Indonesia when it discovered oil in the Sebanga field in Riau in August 1040.

1941

Caltex discovered the giant oil field Duri in 1941. Duri has the largest oil deposit in Southeast Asia at that time.

1944

Caltex discovered another giant oil field, the Minas field, in December 1944.

1945

Indonesia declared its independence in 1945. This is the event that changed the ways how oil companies operated in Indonesia.

1951

PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, commonly referred to as CPI, was established in 1951 as an Indonesian company and was awarded the right from the government of Indonesia to continue to operate the Rokan block under a work contract scheme.

1952

Oil production from the Minas field started in April 1952 and was exported from Parawan and Pakning. The initial oil production from the Minas field was 15,000 BOPD.

1954

The Duri field started to produce oil in February 1954.

1955

Caltex discovered the Bekasap field in September 1955.

1958

Caltex built the first road that connected Pekanbaru and Dumai. It was also the first road that linked the east and west coasts of the island of Sumatra.

Caltex completed the Dumai oil export terminal in July 1958. At the same time, Caltex also completed the construction of oil pipelines from Duri to Dumai.

1959

Minas crude was exported from the Dumai terminal beginning in January 1959.

1963

PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia appointed Julius Tahija, the first native Indonesian as its president in 1963. 

1965

Oil production from the Bekasap field began in June 1965.

Oil production from the Duri field during the primary recovery phase peaked at 65,000 BOPD in 1965.

1966

The Pematang field came online in July 1966 and the Pungut field in August 1966.

1967

Caltex cumulative oil production reached 1000,000,000 barrels in August 1967.

Caltex constructed an extensive pipeline and road networks to connect major fields such as Bangko, Bekasap, Pematang, Petani, and Kotabatak. These fields significantly increased its oil production output.

1969

The cumulative oil production from the Minas field reached 1000,000,000 barrels in May 1969.

1973

The Petapahan field began producing oil in January 1973.

Daily oil production of Caltex reached 1000,000 BOPD for the first time in May 1973.

1975

Caltex started the Duri steam flood pilot project.

1977

CPI completed the construction of the 350-meter long bridge over the Siak river connecting the city of Pekanbaru to Rumbai, and former President Soeharto inaugurated the bridge in April 1977. Rumbai is the area where the main office and housing complex of Caltex are located.

1980

Caltex completed its first oil Gathering Station under the Duri steam flood project. More gathering stations were later added as the Duri steam flood expanded.  

1983

Caltex completed its main office building in Rumbai.

1990

The late former President Soeharto inaugurated the Duri Steam Flood on 3 March 1990.

1992

Caltex Pacific Indonesia obtained a 20-year extension to its production sharing agreement with Indonesia to operate the Rokan block until 2021.

1995

Caltex implemented the Strategic Business Unit management system in 1995.

1997

Caltex completed the Dumai Main Office in May 1997.

2000

Chevron acquired Texaco in October 2000.

2002

Caltex handed over the Coastal Pekanbaru Plain (CPP) block which it had acquired in 1971 to PT Bumi Siak Pusako – Pertamina Hulu on 18 August 2002.

The new operator is a joint operation body between PT Bumi Siak Pusako (BSP) which is owned by the local government in Riau and Pertamina. 

2005

With the acquisition of Texaco by Chevron, Caltex Pacific Indonesia was renamed Chevron Pacific Indonesia in September 2005.

Chevron Pacific Indonesia came under the umbrella of Chevron IndoAsia Business Unit in 2005 along with Chevron Indonesia Company (ex-Unocal Indonesia Company), Chevron Makassar (the Makassar Deepwater Project), Chevron Geothermal Indonesia (Ex-Unocal geothermal projects in Darajat and Salak), Mandau Cipta Tenaga Nusantara, and Chevron Geothermal Philippines.  

2008

Chevron Pacific Indonesia marked the 11th billion barrels of oil produced from its Sumatra operation in 2008.

2010

Chevron Pacific Indonesia handed over the operatorship of the Langgak block to PT Sarana Pembangunan Riau in January 2010.

2018

With the help of the successful steam flood, the Duri field’s cumulative oil production reached 2.6 billion barrels in 2018.

Total cumulative oil production of CPI from all fields reached 13 billion barrels.

2021

Chevron Pacific Indonesia hands over the prolific Rokan block to Pertamina Hulu Rokan on 8 August 2021. Rokan block with an area of 6220 KM2 is the largest oil concession block in Indonesia. Stretching over five “kabupaten” (regencies) in central Sumatera it produced oil from more than 12000 wells located in 80 fields. It also operates one of the biggest and most successful steam floods in the world.

The top ten producing oil fields in the Rokan block are Minas, Duri, Bangko, Bekasap, Balam South, Kotabatak, Petani, Pematang, Petapahan, and Pager.

Although the total oil production from the Rokan block has come down to 160,000 barrels per day, it is still a very significant oil asset for Indonesia as it is contributing 24% of the country’s total oil production according to SKK Migas.

Presidents of Caltex Pacific Indonesia Since 1963

One of the keys to success of CPI is its adaptability. The company took initiatives to work well with both the central government of Indonesia and the local government and the communities.

Caltex Pacific Indonesia decided in 1963 to Indonesianize the company. It appointed Mr. Julius Tahija as the first native Indonesian as the company president. All its subsequent presidents have been Indonesians.

Here are the past presidents of Chevron Pacific Indonesia since 1963:

1. Julius Tahija, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1963 – 1977)

2. Haroen Al Rasjid, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1977 – 1993)

3. Baihaki Hamid Hakim, President & Chairman of the Board of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1993-1999)

4. Humayunbosha, President of PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (1999-2004),

5. W. Yudiana Ardiwinata, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia (2004-2005),

6. Suwito Anggoro, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director Indonesia Business Unit (2005-2010),

7. Abdul Hamid Batubara, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director Indonesia Business Unit (2010-2014),

8.Albert B. M. Simanjuntak, President of PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia and Deputy Managing Director IBU (2014-2021),

Epilog

Although the signboard with a Caltex logo will no longer be seen at the entrance of Rumbai camp, the company will continue to be remembered by people who have worked for the company and the people who have lived in the surrounding communities.

Caltex will be remembered not just for what it did in the oil fields, but it will also be remembered for what it did for the surrounding people and communities.

Here are some of the most notable legacy of Caltex:

  1. Building the first state senior high school (SMAN-1) in Pekanbaru in 1957
  2. Completion of the 350 meter-long bridge over the Siak River in 1977.
  3. Establishing the polytechnic college – Politeknik Caltex Riau in 2001.

This article is written by Jamin Djuang. He had been in Rumbai and Duri conducting training for Caltex and traveled the private road connecting Rumbai and Duri. He enjoyed eating in the Caltex cafeteria in Rumbai where it served both delicious Indonesian and western food.

Some of the information in this article was provided by Mr. Elthaf who worked for CPI in Minas field for 36 years.

The Three Big Oil Companies in Indonesia before 1945

Sungei Gerong Refinery in South Sumatera in 1926

The first oil exploration in Indonesia started not long after Colonel Drake successfully drilled the first oil discovery well in Pennsylvania in the United States in 1859.

By 1869, Dutch businessmen in Indonesia, known as the Netherlands East Indies at that time, had noticed and recorded 53 oil seepage locations in Sumatera, Java, and Kalimantan.

Then the first oil well drilling in Indonesia took place in 1871 in West Java.

However, commercial discoveries were made only several years later when a Dutch businessman drilled successful exploration wells in Pangkalan Brandan in North Sumatera in 1885 and Sanga-Sanga in East Kalimantan in 1892.

These two discoveries caught the attention of the world and put Indonesia on the map as one of the countries with interesting oil potentials.

By 1900 there were already 18 oil companies searching for oil in the Netherlands East Indies (NEI). All these companies were either Dutch companies or non-Dutch companies registered in Nederland. The high level of activities resulted in significant oil discoveries in the early 1900s.

Following the oil discoveries, refineries were built in Pangkalan Brandan in North Sumatera in 1892, Sungei Gerong in South Sumatera in 1926, Balikpapan in East Kalimantan in 1922. By 1940, there were already seven refineries in NEI: three in Sumatera, three in Java, and one in Kalimantan.

In 1938, the daily crude oil production was about 140,000 BOPD and in 1953 it was about 190,000 BOPD.

The high level of oil production and refining activities from 1900 to 1940 made Indonesia well-known as one of the world’s significant crude oil producers and refined product suppliers at that time. In fact, Indonesia was so well-known for its oil it became involved in World War II.

Recognized as a significant oil producer, Indonesia was invited to become a member of OPEC 1962.

The three oil companies that produced about 90% of all the petroleum in Indonesia during the Dutch colonial period are:

  • BPM – Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij
  • STANVAC – Standard Vacuum Oil Company
  • CALTEX

Here are the amazing stories of these three big oil companies operating in Indonesia before 1945.


BPM

BPM is Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, also called the Batavian Oil Company. Batavia, which is Jakarta today, was the center of the NEI government.

BPM was established in 1907 by KNPM (Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij) also known as Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and Shell Trading and Transport Company to explore and produce oil in the Netherlands East Indies.

Royal Dutch Petroleum Company owned 60% and Shell owned 40% of BPM.

Before BPM was set up, there were already as many as 18 oil companies operating in the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) from North Sumatera, Java, Borneo, and all the way to Papua.

BPM quickly took over almost all of these companies and dominated the oil industry in Indonesia. By 1920, it had controlled more than 95% of crude oil production in Indonesia.

In 1921, as the government of the Netherlands East Indies wanted to take part in the booming oil business in Indonesia, NEI and BPM formed another company called NIAM (Nederlands Indische Aardolie Maatschappij).

Many big changes took place in the oil industry after Indonesia declared its independence in 1945. The first big change was the takeover by the government of Indonesia the NEI’s 50% ownership in NIAM.

This marked the beginning of an Indonesian government-owned oil company. It also started a working relationship between BPM and the government of Indonesia. With this relationship, BPM managed to extend its activities in Indonesia until 1965.

In 1965, BPM sold all its assets in Indonesia to the Indonesian state-owned company PN Permina for US$110 Million. Permina later became Pertamina.

BPM operations in Indonesia were extensive. They stretched from the western part of Indonesia to the eastern part of Indonesia.

Here are the operations of BPM in various parts of Indonesia.

BPM In Borneo

In 1907, right after it was formed, BPM acquired the oil fields and refinery in Balikpapan from Mathilda company. It also acquired the oil fields in Sanga Sanga and Tarakan which had been discovered previously by KNPM (Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij).

BPM expanded its exploration and production aggressively in East Borneo and continued to discover several other fields in these areas.

On the small island of Tarakan, BPM drilled 700 oil wells and built a refinery.

Production continued to increase and in the 1920s the Tarakan wells produced about 18,000 BOPD, a third of the total oil production in the whole Dutch East Indies.

BPM in North Sumatera

BPM acquired from KNPM the oil fields and the refinery located at Pangkalan Brandan. BPM also took over the operations of the oil tanking and the oil export facilities at Pangkalan Susu. Pangkalan Susu was the first oil-exporting port in Indonesia.

BPM in Java

In Java, BPM acquired the oil assets of DPM (Doordsche Petroleum Maatschappij), a Dutch oil company established by Adriaan Stoop in 1887.

DPM had discovered and operated the Kruka Field and the Djabakota Field near Surabaya in East Java. DPM also had built the oil refinery in Wonokromo. Completed in 1893, this was the first oil refinery in Indonesia.

By acquiring DPM, BPM also became the owner of some thirty oil fields in East Java including another refinery located in Cepu which was built in 1894.

BPM In South Sumatera

In South Sumatera, BPM took over SPPM (Sumatera Palembang Petroleum Maatschappij). SPPM had been operating the oil fields in its concessions in Banyuasin and Jambi.

BPM also acquired the oil assets of MEPM (Muara Enim Petroleum Maatschappij). MEPM had discovered the Muara Enim field and built the Plaju Refinery.

BPM In Irian Jaya

In 1935 BPM expanded its search for oil into Irian Jaya. For this venture, along with other partners, BPM formed a joint venture company named NNGPM (Nederlandsche Nieuw Guinea Petroleum Maatschappij) with exploration rights for 25 years.

By 1938 they had discovered the Klamono oil field. followed by Wasian, Mogoi, and Sele fields.

However, for commercial reasons, these fields were not developed.

STANVAC

STANVAC – Standard Vacuum Oil Company – started as NKPM (Nederlandsche Koloniale Petroleum Maatschappij) in 1912. NKPM was set up in Nederland by the American company Standard Oil of New Jersey so it could explore for oil in Indonesia.

Since Indonesia was under the control of the Netherlands East Indies at that time, Jersey Standards had to set up NKPM as a Dutch-registered and Dutch-managed company with headquarters located in The Hague.

NKPM began to make exploration in Java and South Sumatera in 1914.

It was in South Sumatera NKPM found its liquid gold. Operating from the city of Palembang, it discovered the Petak field in 1914, the Trembule field, and the huge Talang Akar field in 1921. These discoveries prompted NKPM to construct the famous Sungai Gerong oil refinery.

In 1922 NKPM changed its name to SVPM (Standard-Vacuum Petroleum Maatschappij).

It also constructed the 130 Km long pipeline from Pendopo area to Sungai Gerong to bring the crude oil from the prolific Talang Akar field to the refinery.

The Sungai Gerong refinery began operating in 1926 and became the largest and important oil refinery in South East Asia.

It was so important that the refinery was occupied by Japanese forces from 1942 to 1945 during World War II.

To meet the increasing demands for petroleum products in Africa and the Asia Pacific, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and SOCONY (Standard Oil Company of New York) jointly created STANVAC (Standard Vacuum Oil Company) in 1933.

This was a synergistic partnership as Standard Oil Company of New Jersey had the oil production capacity and SONONY had the marketing facility.

The newly created Stanvac in the Netherlands East Indies consisted of three companies: Standard Vacuum Petroleum Maatschappij (SVPM), the Standard Vacuum Sales Company (SVSC), and the Standard Vacuum Tankvaart Maatschappij (SVTM).

Stanvac took over all the assets of SVPM in Indonesia and became a full-fledged oil company involved in oil exploration and production, refining, transportation, and distribution in more than 50 countries.

However, Stanvac continued to operate under its Dutch company name – SVPM – in the NEI.

Stanvac produced oil from many fields in South Sumatera. The notable ones were Talang Akar, Djirak, Benakat, Radja fields.   

In 1934, Stanvac expanded its operations to Central Sumatera.  Here it discovered and developed the well-known Lirik field and later the Binio field.

Things began to change after World War II and the declaration of independence of Indonesia.

It was after the declaration of independence by Indonesia in 1945, to distance itself from its Dutch connection, Stanvac began calling itself  Stanvac Indonesia as its company name to show its American origin.

In so doing, Stanvac was able to keep its assets and continue to operate in the newly independent Indonesia.

In 1960, as Indonesia wanted to have more control of the oil operation and business, it introduced the 1960 Oil Law which stated that all foreign oil companies must operate as a contractor for the Indonesian government.

On 24 September 1963, Stanvac signed the “Contract of Work” agreement with Indonesia’s Pertambangan Minjak Nasional (Permina).

The contract allowed Stanvac to continue to have full control of its oil exploration and production operations in Indonesia. Under this agreement, Stanvac must sell its refinery within ten to fifteen years.

However, Stanvac had to sell its Sungai Gerong refinery to Pertamina in 1969.

Stanvac Indonesia continued to operate its oil fields until finally, it left Indonesia in 1995 when it sold all its assets to Medco Energi for 88 million USD.

CALTEX

CALTEX was established in 1936 by Standard of California and Texaco to explore and produce oil in Indonesia and to expand its oil business in the Asia Pacific.

Earlier in 1924, The Standard of California had sent its team of geologists to Indonesia.

To operate in the Netherlands East Indies at that time, Caltex must obtain oil concessions from the government of NEI (Nederlands East India) who was the ruler of Indonesia at that time. To do so, in 1930, Caltex established NPPM (Nederlandsche Pacific Petroleum Maatschappij), a Nederland registered company with its headquarters located in The Hague. Also, the company must be run by Dutch nationals.

In the same year, Caltex received its first oil concession in the Rimba area which is now known as the Rokan Block in Central Sumatera.

Soon after that Caltex began to find oil, but it was in 1941 that  Caltex discovered the huge Duri field. Due to the high pour point of its low gravity crude oil, it was necessary to use steam-flood to drive out the oil. Due to the success of the steam flood method, the Duri field became known as one of the largest steam-flood projects in the world. In spite of the huge challenges to produce the field, it has produced more than 2.64 billion barrels of oil so far.

Several years later Caltex went on to discover another giant oil field, The Minas field.

The story of the Minas field discovery is very interesting. In 1940, at the beginning of World War II, Caltex had started the drilling of its exploration well in the Minas area. However, before the drilling was completed, Caltex had to abandon the drilling as the Japanese army was coming to occupy the area and to take over the oil facilities.

The Japanese army engineers resumed the drilling of the well in 1943 and discovered oil when it drilled down to 2600 feet deep.

At the end of the war, Caltex regained control of its oil assets and continued to investigate the Minas field. After drilling several additional wells, Caltex confirmed the discovery of the huge Minas oil field.

Caltex went on to discover many smaller oil fields in its concession area.

By the late 1950s, Caltex became one of the largest oil producers in Indonesia.  At its peak in 1973, Caltex produced about 1 million BOPD from the Duri, the Minas, and about 80 smaller oil fields. Caltex holds the record of having the highest daily crude oil production rate in Indonesia.

Caltex completed the construction of a crude oil export terminal in Dumai in 1958.

Caltex signed a work contract agreement with Indonesia in 1961 giving it the right to continue to operate the Rokan block until 2001. Later on, Caltex managed to obtain a work contract extension to operate the block for another 20 years until 2021.

The two owners of CALTEX, Chevron, and Texaco merged in 2001 to become ChevronTexaco Corporation. Later on, in 2005, ChevronTexaco Corporation dropped the name Texaco and renamed the company as Chevron Corporation.

Following the name change of its parent company, Caltex in Indonesia which was initially incorporated as PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia changed its name to PT Chevron Pacific Indonesia.

By 2008, Chevron Pacific Indonesia had produced 11 billion barrels of crude oil from the extremely prolific Rokan block.

Although the Rokan block has been producing oil for more than 80 years, it still has 2 billion barrels of estimated producible reserves. It is considered as an important block in Indonesia’s ambition to increase the daily oil production in Indonesia to one million barrels by 2030.

Although the name Caltex disappeared in Indonesia after the name change, the Caltex petroleum brand is still alive in many countries in the Asia Pacific.

Epilogue

These three companies of the past were great companies to work for. Since most of their oilfields were located in the middle of a jungle, the companies provided good and well-rounded facilities – schools, clinics, cafeterias, places for worship, sports, and entertainment – to their employees and their families.

Many people and children of those who had worked for these companies have fond and colorful memories of the companies.

To me, the one that is the most interesting is BPM.

The joint venture of Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and Shell Trading and Transport Company that formed BPM – Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij – in Indonesia in 1907 sowed the seed that eventually grew into the current giant Shell Oil Company.

Also, BPM had a role in the rise of Pertamina when Pertamina took over all the assets of BPM in 1965.

WRITTEN BY

Jamin Djuang – Chief Learning Officer of LDI Training and author of The Story of Oil and Gas: How Oil and Gas Are Explored, Drilled and Produced


 

The Famous Duri Oil Field

Duri to Dumai Road Construction in 1958

Eighty years ago, CALTEX discovered the huge Duri oil field in the Rokan block in Riau, Sumatera.

Oil was found at a shallow depth of 400 feet when CALTEX began drilling its exploration wells in 1941. However, the exploration drilling was interrupted due to the onset of the World War 2. After the war ended, CALTEX managed to obtain the approval from the newly formed government of Indonesia to operate in the Rokan block under a work contract scheme. Eventually, oil production from the Duri field began in February 1954.

The giant Duri field – 10 km wide and 18 km long – is one of the many oil fields discovered in the Rokan block. Minas is another giant oil field discovered in this block.

Oil production peaked at 65,000 BOPD in the 1960s.

Due to the high viscosity of the low gravity oil, to enhance the production, the steam injection was introduced in 1985.

The Duri steam flood project was so successful that it became one of the largest and the best steam floods in the world.

Thanks to the successful steam injection, Duri oil production increased significantly to 185,000 BOPD.

After 30 years of the steam flood, the production had declined to about 50,000 BOPD by 2017.

With more than 2.6 billion barrels of cumulative oil produced, the giant Duri field is still producing today.

Chevron will hand over the operatorship of the Duri field and the Rokan block to Pertamina in August 2021.

Eight Largest Oil Lifting Terminals in Indonesia

oil storage tanks
Oil Storage Tanks

In 2019, the average daily crude oil production in Indonesia was 746,000 barrels.

Here are the eight largest crude oil lifting terminals in Indonesia in 2019 according to SKK Migas of Indonesia.

  1. WIDURI MARINE TERMINAL

Widuri Marine Terminal is operated by Pertamina Hulu Energi OSES which operates the oil fields located in the Offshore South East Sumatera contract area.

The South East Sumatera contract area was initially awarded to IIAPCO in 1968. Many big oil fields were discovered in this block such as Banuwati, Cinta, Intan, Widuri and Zelda.

Crude oil produced from these fields were stored in the Lentera Bangsa FSO – a floating, storage, and offloading vessel – and then offloaded into oil tankers.

The operatorship of this contract area changed hands many times during its 50 years of operation. Previous operators include IIAPCO, Maxus, Repsol, and CNOOC.

The average daily crude oil lifting volume of the Widuri Marine Terminal was 8501 BOPD.

  1. SENORO MARINE TERMINAL

Senoro Marine Terminal is operated by JOB Pertamina  Medco Tomori Sulawesi which is a joint operating body consisting of Pertamina Hulu Energi, Medco E&P and Tomori E&P.

JOB Pertamina Medco Tomori Sulawesi operating in the Tomori-Toili Block located in Central Sulawesi produces gas and condensate from the Senoro gas field and crude oil from the Tiaka oil field.

The gas from the Senoro field is processed into LNG by the Donggi-Senoro LNG plant which started operation in August 2015.

The average daily lifting volume at Senoro Marine Terminal was 14,857 BOPD

  1. TUBAN MARINE TERMINAL

Tuban Marine Terminal located in East Java is operated by PT Pertamina EP. The terminal handles the lifting of crude oil that Pertamina EP produces from the Tuban block. Before 29 February 2018, the Tuban block was operated under Joint Operating Body (JOB) Pertamina Petrochina East Java.

PT Pertamina EP, established on 17 September 2005, came under the supervision of BPMIGAS on 17 September 2005. BPMIGAS became SKK Migas on 13 November 2012.

On average, 16358 BOPD was lifted at the Tuban Marine Terminal.

  1. ARDJUNA TERMINAL

The Ardjuna oil terminal is operated by Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ which operates the oil and gas fields located in the Offshore North West Java work area.

The huge Ardjuna oil field was initially discovered by ARCO after it signed the PSC contract in 1971. ARCO later became BP West Java.  Pertamina Hulu Energi ONWJ became the operator of the Ardjuna field in July 2009.

The average crude oil lifting volume from the Ardjuna terminal was 25626 BOPD.

  1. SENIPAH MARINE TERMINAL

Senipah Marine terminal is operated by Pertamina Hulu Mahakam. The terminal was previously operated by Total Indonesie who discovered several big oil and gas fields – Bekapai, Handil, Tunu, Peciko, Sisi, Tunu –  in the Offshore Mahakam block.

On average, 31539 BOPD was lifted at The Senipah Marine terminal.

  1. RU PP7

The RU PP7 terminal is located in the Riau province in Sumatera and operated by Chevron Pacific Indonesia.

The average daily lifting volume at RU PP7 Terminal was 62,337 BOPD.

  1. DUMAI TERMINAL

The Dumai terminal is located in the Riau province in Sumatera and operated by Chevron Pacific Indonesia who holds the operatorship of the prolific Rokan PSC which will soon expire in 2021.

Chevron Pacific Indonesia, also known as CPI, discovered two super-giant oilfields: the Duri field in 1941 and Minas in 1944. Subsequently, CPI continued to discover many smaller oil fields in the Rokan work area.

Due to its low gravity oil, the Duri field underwent steam flooding in 1985 to enhance the recovery of its heavy oil. The Duri field steam flood project is one of the largest in the world.

The average daily lifting volume at the Dumai Terminal was 116,555 BOPD.

  1. BANYU URIP MARINE TERMINAL

At an average daily crude oil lifting volume of 200, 937 barrels, the Banyu Urip Marine Terminal is currently the top crude oil lifting terminal in Indonesia. It handles the lifting of the crude oil produced by Mobil Cepu from the onshore Banyu Urip field located in the Cepu Block contract area.

After the crude is processed in the central processing facilities (CPF) located at the center of the oil field, the oil is transported through a 72 KM long pipeline to the coast of Tuban, and then through a 23 KM long subsea pipeline to the FSO (Floating, Storage and Offloading) vessel. The FSO is named FSO Gagak Rimang.

The crude oil from the Banyu Urip field is lifted by oil tankers from FSO Gagak Rimang for transport to domestic and international refineries. The FSO has storage capacity for 2 million barrels of crude oil.

This article is written by Jamin Djuang based on the information published by SKK Migas. He is the founder of LDI Training which provides oil and gas training and the published author of The Story of Oil and Gas.